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Title: Sex chromosomes in the tribe Cyprichromini (Teleostei: Cichlidae) of Lake Tanganyika
Abstract Sex determining loci have been described on at least 12 of 22 chromosomes in East African cichlid fishes, indicating a high rate of sex chromosome turnover. To better understand the rates and patterns of sex chromosome replacement, we used new methods to characterize the sex chromosomes of the cichlid tribe Cyprichromini from Lake Tanganyika. Our k-mer based methods successfully identified sex-linked polymorphisms without the need for a reference genome. We confirm the three previously reported sex chromosomes in this group. We determined the polarity of the sex chromosome turnover on LG05 in Cyprichromis as ZW to XY. We identified a new ZW locus on LG04 in Paracyprichromis brieni. The LG15 XY locus in Paracyprichromis nigripinnis was not found in other Paracyprichromis species, and the sample of Paracyprichromis sp. “tembwe ” is likely to be of hybrid origin. Although highly divergent sex chromosomes are thought to develop in a stepwise manner, we show two cases (LG05-ZW and LG05-XY) in which the region of differentiation encompasses most of the chromosome, but appears to have arisen in a single step. This study expands our understanding of sex chromosome evolution in the Cyprichromini, and indicates an even higher level of sex chromosome turnover than previously thought.  more » « less
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Scientific Reports
Medium: X
Sponsoring Org:
National Science Foundation
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