This content will become publicly available on May 1, 2023
- Award ID(s):
- Publication Date:
- NSF-PAR ID:
- Journal Name:
- 2022 2nd Workshop on Data-Driven and Intelligent Cyber-Physical Systems for Smart Cities Workshop (DI-CPS)
- Page Range or eLocation-ID:
- 31 to 35
- Sponsoring Org:
- National Science Foundation
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This paper focuses on the detection of cyber-attack on a communication channel and simultaneous radar health monitoring for a connected vehicle. A semi-autonomous adaptive cruise control (SA-ACC) vehicle is considered which has wireless communication with its immediately preceding vehicle to operate at small time-gap distances without creating string instability. However, the reliability of the wireless connectivity is critical for ensuring safe vehicle operation. The presence of two unknown inputs related to both sensor failure and cyber-attack seemingly poses a difficult estimation challenge. The dynamic system is first represented in descriptor system form. An observer with estimation error dynamics decoupled from the cyber-attack signal is developed. The performance of the observer is extensively evaluated in simulations. The estimation system is able to detect either a fault in the velocity measurement radar channel or a cyber-attack. Also, the proposed observer-based controller achieves resilient SA-ACC system under the cyber-attacks. The fundamental estimation algorithm developed herein can be extended in the future to enable cyber-attack detection in more complex connected vehicle architectures.
With the development of the emerging Connected Vehicle (CV) technology, vehicles can wirelessly communicate with traffic infrastructure and other vehicles to exchange safety and mobility information in real time. However, the integrated communication capability inevitably increases the attack surface of vehicles, which can be exploited to cause safety hazard on the road. Thus, it is highly desirable to systematically understand design-level flaws in the current CV network stack as well as in CV applications, and the corresponding security/safety consequences so that these flaws can be proactively discovered and addressed before large-scale deployment. In this paper, we design CVAnalyzer, a system for discovering design-level flaws for availability violations of the CV network stack, as well as quantifying the corresponding security/safety consequences. To achieve this, CVAnalyzer combines the attack discovery capability of a general model checker and the quantitative threat assessment capability of a probabilistic model checker. Using CVAnalyzer, we successfully uncovered 4 new DoS (Denial-of-Service) vulnerabilities of the latest CV network protocols and 14 new DoS vulnerabilities of two CV platoon management protocols. Our quantification results show that these attacks can have as high as 99% success rates, and in the worst case can at least double the delay in packetmore »
Speed planning in a vehicle-following scenario can reduce vehicle fuel consumption even under limited traffic preview and in moderate penetration of connected autonomous vehicles (CAVs), but could also lead to colder exhaust temperature, and consequently, less efficient aftertreatment conversion. To investigate this potential trade-off, this paper presents a model predictive controller (MPC) to optimally plan in an energy-conscious way the optimal speed trajectory for a diesel car following a hypothetical lead vehicle that drives through the velocity trace of a federal test procedure. Using this energy-conscious optimal speed plan we investigate different horizons for three objective functions, including minimum acceleration, minimum fuel consumption and minimum power. Then, MPC results are compared to the trajectories obtained by dynamic programming with full knowledge of the drive cycle. As expected, longer previews lead to smoother velocity trajectories that reduce the fuel consumption by 11% when power is the objective function, if the preview is accurate. When the minimum fuel is set as the objective in the MPC, the controller coordinates to operate the engine at more efficient conditions, which increases the fuel saving to 25%. However, the extra fuel saving is shown to be achieved at the expense of high vehicle NOx emissions,more »
Reinforcement Learning for Safety-Critical Control under Model Uncertainty, using Control Lyapunov Functions and Control Barrier FunctionsIn this paper, the issue of model uncertainty in safety-critical control is addressed with a data-driven approach. For this purpose, we utilize the structure of an input-output linearization controller based on a nominal model along with a Control Barrier Function and Control Lyapunov Function based Quadratic Program (CBF-CLF-QP). Specifically, we propose a novel reinforcement learning framework which learns the model uncertainty present in the CBF and CLF constraints, as well as other control-affine dynamic constraints in the quadratic program. The trained policy is combined with the nominal model based CBF-CLF-QP, resulting in the Reinforcement Learning based CBF-CLF-QP (RL-CBF-CLF-QP), which addresses the problem of model uncertainty in the safety constraints. The performance of the proposed method is validated by testing it on an underactuated nonlinear bipedal robot walking on randomly spaced stepping stones with one step preview, obtaining stable and safe walking under model uncertainty.
Control Barrier Functions (CBFs) have become popular for enforcing — via barrier constraints — the safe operation of nonlinear systems within an admissible set. For systems with input delay(s) of the same length, constrained control has been achieved by combining a CBF for the delay free system with a state predictor that compensates the single input delay. Recently, this approach was extended to multi input systems with input delays of different lengths. One limitation of this extension is that barrier constraint adherence can only be guaranteed after the longest input delay has been compensated and all input channels become available for control. In this paper, we consider the problem of enforcing constraint adherence when only a subset of input delays have been compensated. In particular, we propose a new barrier constraint formulation that ensures that when possible, a subset of input channels with shorter delays will be utilized for keeping the system in the admissible set even before longer input delays have been compensated. We include a numerical example to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed approach.