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Title: Stable sodium anodes for sodium metal batteries (SMBs) enabled by in-situ formed quasi solid-state polymer electrolyte
Award ID(s):
Author(s) / Creator(s):
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Date Published:
Journal Name:
Journal of Energy Chemistry
Page Range / eLocation ID:
290 to 299
Medium: X
Sponsoring Org:
National Science Foundation
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  1. In recent years, multi-phase materials capable of multi-ion transport have emerged as attractive candidates for a variety of electrochemical devices. Here, we provide experimental results for fabricating a composite electrolyte made up of a one-dimensional fast sodium-ion conductor, sodium zirconogallate, and an oxygen-ion conductor, yttria-stabilized zirconia. The composite is synthesized through a vapor phase conversion mechanism, and the kinetics of this process are discussed in detail. The samples are characterized using diffraction, electron microscopy, and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy techniques. Samples with a finer grain structure exhibit higher kinetic rates due to larger three-phase boundaries (TPBs) per unit area. The total conductivity is fitted to an Arrhenius type equation with activation energies ranging from 0.23 eV at temperatures below 550 ° C to 1.07 eV above 550 ° C . The electrochemical performance of multi-phase multi-species, mixed Na + and O 2 − conductor, is tested under both oxygen chemical potential gradient as well as sodium chemical potential gradient are discussed using the Goldman-Hodgkin-Kats (GHK) and the Nernst equation. 
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