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Title: Network organization of resting-state cerebral hemodynamics and their aliasing contributions measured by functional near-infrared spectroscopy

Objective. Spontaneous fluctuations of cerebral hemodynamics measured by functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) are widely used to study the network organization of the brain. The temporal correlations among the ultra-slow, <0.1 Hz fluctuations across the brain regions are interpreted as functional connectivity maps and used for diagnostics of neurological disorders. However, despite the interest narrowed in the ultra-slow fluctuations, hemodynamic activity that exists beyond the ultra-slow frequency range could contribute to the functional connectivity, which remains unclear.Approach. In the present study, we have measured the brain-wide hemodynamics in the human participants with functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) in a whole-head, cap-based and high-density montage at a sampling rate of 6.25 Hz. In addition, we have acquired resting state fMRI scans in the same group of participants for cross-modal evaluation of the connectivity maps. Then fNIRS data were deliberately down-sampled to a typical fMRI sampling rate of ∼0.5 Hz and the resulted differential connectivity maps were subject to a k-means clustering.Main results. Our diffuse optical topographical analysis of fNIRS data have revealed a default mode network (DMN) in the spontaneous deoxygenated and oxygenated hemoglobin changes, which remarkably resemble the same fMRI network derived from participants. Moreover, we have shown that the aliased activities in the down-sampled optical signals have altered the connectivity patterns, resulting in a network organization of aliased functional connectivity in the cerebral hemodynamics.Significance.The results have for the first time demonstrated that fNIRS as a broadly accessible modality can image the resting-state functional connectivity in the posterior midline, prefrontal and parietal structures of the DMN in the human brain, in a consistent pattern with fMRI. Further empowered by the fast sampling rate of fNIRS, our findings suggest the presence of aliased connectivity in the current understanding of the human brain organization.

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Award ID(s):
Author(s) / Creator(s):
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Publisher / Repository:
IOP Publishing
Date Published:
Journal Name:
Journal of Neural Engineering
Page Range / eLocation ID:
Article No. 016012
Medium: X
Sponsoring Org:
National Science Foundation
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    Study Type



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