skip to main content

Title: On the possible nature of deep centers in Ga2O3

The electric field dependence of emission rate of the deep traps with level near Ec−0.6 eV, so-called E1 traps, was studied by means of deep level transient spectroscopy measurements over a wide range of applied voltages. The traps were initially introduced by 900 °C ampoule annealing in molecular hydrogen. The results indicate the activation energy of the centers and the ratio of high-field to low-field electron emission rates at a fixed temperature scale as the square root of electric field, suggesting that the centers behave as deep donors. The possible microscopic nature of the centers in view of recent theoretical calculations is discussed. The most likely candidates for the E1 centers are SiGa1–H or SnGa2–H complexes.

more » « less
Award ID(s):
Author(s) / Creator(s):
; ; ; ; ; ; ;
Publisher / Repository:
American Vacuum Society
Date Published:
Journal Name:
Journal of Vacuum Science & Technology A
Medium: X
Sponsoring Org:
National Science Foundation
More Like this
  1. Resonant tunneling diodes (RTDs) have come full-circle in the past 10 years after their demonstration in the early 1990s as the fastest room-temperature semiconductor oscillator, displaying experimental results up to 712 GHz and fmax values exceeding 1.0 THz [1]. Now the RTD is once again the preeminent electronic oscillator above 1.0 THz and is being implemented as a coherent source [2] and a self-oscillating mixer [3], amongst other applications. This paper concerns RTD electroluminescence – an effect that has been studied very little in the past 30+ years of RTD development, and not at room temperature. We present experiments and modeling of an n-type In0.53Ga0.47As/AlAs double-barrier RTD operating as a cross-gap light emitter at ~300K. The MBE-growth stack is shown in Fig. 1(a). A 15-μm-diam-mesa device was defined by standard planar processing including a top annular ohmic contact with a 5-μm-diam pinhole in the center to couple out enough of the internal emission for accurate free-space power measurements [4]. The emission spectra have the behavior displayed in Fig. 1(b), parameterized by bias voltage (VB). The long wavelength emission edge is at  = 1684 nm - close to the In0.53Ga0.47As bandgap energy of Ug ≈ 0.75 eV at 300 K. The spectral peaks for VB = 2.8 and 3.0 V both occur around  = 1550 nm (h = 0.75 eV), so blue-shifted relative to the peak of the “ideal”, bulk InGaAs emission spectrum shown in Fig. 1(b) [5]. These results are consistent with the model displayed in Fig. 1(c), whereby the broad emission peak is attributed to the radiative recombination between electrons accumulated on the emitter side, and holes generated on the emitter side by interband tunneling with current density Jinter. The blue-shifted main peak is attributed to the quantum-size effect on the emitter side, which creates a radiative recombination rate RN,2 comparable to the band-edge cross-gap rate RN,1. Further support for this model is provided by the shorter wavelength and weaker emission peak shown in Fig. 1(b) around = 1148 nm. Our quantum mechanical calculations attribute this to radiative recombination RR,3 in the RTD quantum well between the electron ground-state level E1,e, and the hole level E1,h. To further test the model and estimate quantum efficiencies, we conducted optical power measurements using a large-area Ge photodiode located ≈3 mm away from the RTD pinhole, and having spectral response between 800 and 1800 nm with a peak responsivity of ≈0.85 A/W at  =1550 nm. Simultaneous I-V and L-V plots were obtained and are plotted in Fig. 2(a) with positive bias on the top contact (emitter on the bottom). The I-V curve displays a pronounced NDR region having a current peak-to-valley current ratio of 10.7 (typical for In0.53Ga0.47As RTDs). The external quantum efficiency (EQE) was calculated from EQE = e∙IP/(∙IE∙h) where IP is the photodiode dc current and IE the RTD current. The plot of EQE is shown in Fig. 2(b) where we see a very rapid rise with VB, but a maximum value (at VB= 3.0 V) of only ≈2×10-5. To extract the internal quantum efficiency (IQE), we use the expression EQE= c ∙i ∙r ≡ c∙IQE where ci, and r are the optical-coupling, electrical-injection, and radiative recombination efficiencies, respectively [6]. Our separate optical calculations yield c≈3.4×10-4 (limited primarily by the small pinhole) from which we obtain the curve of IQE plotted in Fig. 2(b) (right-hand scale). The maximum value of IQE (again at VB = 3.0 V) is 6.0%. From the implicit definition of IQE in terms of i and r given above, and the fact that the recombination efficiency in In0.53Ga0.47As is likely limited by Auger scattering, this result for IQE suggests that i might be significantly high. To estimate i, we have used the experimental total current of Fig. 2(a), the Kane two-band model of interband tunneling [7] computed in conjunction with a solution to Poisson’s equation across the entire structure, and a rate-equation model of Auger recombination on the emitter side [6] assuming a free-electron density of 2×1018 cm3. We focus on the high-bias regime above VB = 2.5 V of Fig. 2(a) where most of the interband tunneling should occur in the depletion region on the collector side [Jinter,2 in Fig. 1(c)]. And because of the high-quality of the InGaAs/AlAs heterostructure (very few traps or deep levels), most of the holes should reach the emitter side by some combination of drift, diffusion, and tunneling through the valence-band double barriers (Type-I offset) between InGaAs and AlAs. The computed interband current density Jinter is shown in Fig. 3(a) along with the total current density Jtot. At the maximum Jinter (at VB=3.0 V) of 7.4×102 A/cm2, we get i = Jinter/Jtot = 0.18, which is surprisingly high considering there is no p-type doping in the device. When combined with the Auger-limited r of 0.41 and c ≈ 3.4×10-4, we find a model value of IQE = 7.4% in good agreement with experiment. This leads to the model values for EQE plotted in Fig. 2(b) - also in good agreement with experiment. Finally, we address the high Jinter and consider a possible universal nature of the light-emission mechanism. Fig. 3(b) shows the tunneling probability T according to the Kane two-band model in the three materials, In0.53Ga0.47As, GaAs, and GaN, following our observation of a similar electroluminescence mechanism in GaN/AlN RTDs (due to strong polarization field of wurtzite structures) [8]. The expression is Tinter = (2/9)∙exp[(-2 ∙Ug 2 ∙me)/(2h∙P∙E)], where Ug is the bandgap energy, P is the valence-to-conduction-band momentum matrix element, and E is the electric field. Values for the highest calculated internal E fields for the InGaAs and GaN are also shown, indicating that Tinter in those structures approaches values of ~10-5. As shown, a GaAs RTD would require an internal field of ~6×105 V/cm, which is rarely realized in standard GaAs RTDs, perhaps explaining why there have been few if any reports of room-temperature electroluminescence in the GaAs devices. [1] E.R. Brown,et al., Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 58, 2291, 1991. [5] S. Sze, Physics of Semiconductor Devices, 2nd Ed. 12.2.1 (Wiley, 1981). [2] M. Feiginov et al., Appl. Phys. Lett., 99, 233506, 2011. [6] L. Coldren, Diode Lasers and Photonic Integrated Circuits, (Wiley, 1995). [3] Y. Nishida et al., Nature Sci. Reports, 9, 18125, 2019. [7] E.O. Kane, J. of Appl. Phy 32, 83 (1961). [4] P. Fakhimi, et al., 2019 DRC Conference Digest. [8] T. Growden, et al., Nature Light: Science & Applications 7, 17150 (2018). [5] S. Sze, Physics of Semiconductor Devices, 2nd Ed. 12.2.1 (Wiley, 1981). [6] L. Coldren, Diode Lasers and Photonic Integrated Circuits, (Wiley, 1995). [7] E.O. Kane, J. of Appl. Phy 32, 83 (1961). [8] T. Growden, et al., Nature Light: Science & Applications 7, 17150 (2018). 
    more » « less
  2. Ultrawide bandgap β-(AlxGa1−x)2O3 vertical Schottky barrier diodes on (010) β-Ga2O3 substrates are demonstrated. The β-(AlxGa1−x)2O3 epilayer has an Al composition of 21% and a nominal Si doping of 2 × 1017 cm−3 grown by molecular beam epitaxy. Pt/Ti/Au has been employed as the top Schottky contact, whereas Ti/Au has been utilized as the bottom Ohmic contact. The fabricated devices show excellent rectification with a high on/off ratio of ∼109, a turn-on voltage of 1.5 V, and an on-resistance of 3.4 mΩ cm2. Temperature-dependent forward current-voltage characteristics show effective Schottky barrier height varied from 0.91 to 1.18 eV while the ideality factor from 1.8 to 1.1 with increasing temperatures, which is ascribed to the inhomogeneity of the metal/semiconductor interface. The Schottky barrier height was considered a Gaussian distribution of potential, where the extracted mean barrier height and a standard deviation at zero bias were 1.81 and 0.18 eV, respectively. A comprehensive analysis of the device leakage was performed to identify possible leakage mechanisms by studying temperature-dependent reverse current-voltage characteristics. At reverse bias, due to the large Schottky barrier height, the contributions from thermionic emission and thermionic field emission are negligible. By fitting reverse leakage currents at different temperatures, it was identified that Poole–Frenkel emission and trap-assisted tunneling are the main leakage mechanisms at high- and low-temperature regimes, respectively. Electrons can tunnel through the Schottky barrier assisted by traps at low temperatures, while they can escape these traps at high temperatures and be transported under high electric fields. This work can serve as an important reference for the future development of ultrawide bandgap β-(AlxGa1−x)2O3 power electronics, RF electronics, and ultraviolet photonics.

    more » « less
  3. Differential carrier lifetime measurements were performed on c-plane InGaN/GaN single quantum well (QW) light-emitting diodes (LEDs) of different QW indium compositions as well as with and without doped barriers. Mg-doped p-type and Si-doped n-type barriers close to the QW were used to reduce the net internal electric field in the QW, thereby improving the electron–hole wavefunction overlap on the LEDs. LEDs with doped barriers show short lifetimes and low carrier densities in the active region compared to the reference LEDs. The recombination coefficients in the ABC model were estimated based on the carrier lifetime and quantum efficiency measurements. The improvement in the radiative coefficients in the LEDs with doped barriers coupled with the blueshift of the emission wavelengths indeed indicates an enhancement in wavefunction overlap and a reduction of quantum confined Stark effect as a result of the reduced internal electric field. However, doped barriers also introduce non-radiative recombination centers and thereby increase the Shockley–Read–Hall (SRH) coefficient, although the increment is less for LEDs with high indium composition QWs. As a result, at high indium composition (22%), LEDs with doped barriers outperform the reference LEDs even though the trend is reversed for LEDs with lower indium composition (13.5%). Despite the trade-off of higher SRH coefficients, doped barriers are shown to be effective in reducing the internal electric field and increasing the recombination coefficients.

    more » « less
  4. Abstract

    We characterize Galactic dust filaments by correlating BICEP/Keck and Planck data with polarization templates based on neutral hydrogen (Hi) observations. Dust polarization is important for both our understanding of astrophysical processes in the interstellar medium (ISM) and the search for primordial gravitational waves in the cosmic microwave background (CMB). In the diffuse ISM, Hiis strongly correlated with the dust and partly organized into filaments that are aligned with the local magnetic field. We analyze the deep BICEP/Keck data at 95, 150, and 220 GHz, over the low-column-density region of sky where BICEP/Keck has set the best limits on primordial gravitational waves. We separate the Hiemission into distinct velocity components and detect dust polarization correlated with the local Galactic Hibut not with the Hiassociated with Magellanic Streami. We present a robust, multifrequency detection of polarized dust emission correlated with the filamentary Himorphology template down to 95 GHz. For assessing its utility for foreground cleaning, we report that the Himorphology template correlates inBmodes at a ∼10%–65% level over the multipole range 20 << 200 with the BICEP/Keck maps, which contain contributions from dust, CMB, and noise components. We measure the spectral index of the filamentary dust component spectral energy distribution to beβ= 1.54 ± 0.13. We find no evidence for decorrelation in this region between the filaments and the rest of the dust field or from the inclusion of dust associated with the intermediate velocity Hi. Finally, we explore the morphological parameter space in the Hi-based filamentary model.

    more » « less
  5. Deep centers and their influence on photocurrent spectra and transients were studied for interdigitated photoresistors on α -Ga 2 O 3 undoped semi-insulating films grown by Halide Vapor Phase Epitaxy (HVPE) on sapphire. Characterization involving current-voltage measurements in the dark and with monochromatic illumination with photons with energies from 1.35 eV to 4.9 eV, Thermally Stimulated Current (TSC), Photoinduced Current Transients Spectroscopy (PICTS) showed the Fermi level in the dark was pinned at E c −0.8 eV, with other prominent centers being deep acceptors with optical thresholds near 2.3 eV and 4.9 eV and deep traps with levels at E c −0.5 eV, E c −0.6 eV. Measurements of photocurrent transients produced by illumination with photon energies 2.3 eV and 4.9 eV and Electron Beam Induced Current (EBIC) imaging point to the high sensitivity and external quantum efficiency values being due to hole trapping enhancing the lifetime of electrons and inherently linked with the long photocurrent transients. The photocurrent transients are stretched exponents, indicating the strong contribution of the presence of centers with barriers for electron capture and/or of potential fluctuations. 
    more » « less