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Universal Cathode Design Strategies to Engineer Cathode Electrolyte Interfaces for High Performance All-Solid-State BatteriesMetal-ion batteries (e.g., lithium and sodium ion batteries) are the promising power sources for portable electronics, electric vehicles, and smart grids. Recent metal-ion batteries with organic liquid electrolytes still suffer from safety issues regarding inflammability and insufficient lifetime.1 As the next generation energy storage devices, all-solid-state batteries (ASSBs) have promising potentials for the improved safety, higher energy density, and longer cycle life than conventional Li-ion batteries.2 The nonflammable solid electrolytes (SEs), where only Li ions are mobile, could prevent battery combustion and explosion since the side reactions that cause safety issues as well as degradation of the battery performance are largely suppressed. However, their practical application is hampered by the high resistance arising at the solid–solid electrode–electrolyte interface (including cathode-electrolyte interface and anode-electrolyte interface).3 Several methods have been introduced to optimize the contact capability as well as the electrochemical/chemical stability between the metal anodes (i.e.: Li and Na) and the SEs, which exhibited decent results in decreasing the charge transfer resistance and broadening the range of the stable energy window (i.e., lowing the chemical potential of metal anode below the highest occupied molecular orbital of the SEs).4 Nevertheless, mitigation for the cathode in ASSB is tardily developed because: (1) themore »
(Digital Presentation) Activating the Ion Transmission at the Cathode-Electrolyte Interface in All-Solid-State BatteriesAll-solid-state batteries (ASSBs) have garnered increasing attention due to the enhanced safety, featuring nonflammable solid electrolytes as well as the potential to achieve high energy density. 1 The advancement of the ASSBs is expected to provide, arguably, the most straightforward path towards practical, high-energy, and rechargeable batteries based on metallic anodes. 1 However, the sluggish ion transmission at the cathode-electrolyte (solid/solid) interface would result in the high resistant at the contact and limit the practical implementation of these all solid-state materials in real world batteries. 2 Several methods were suggested to enhance the kinetic condition of the ion migration between the cathode and the solid electrolyte (SE). 3 A composite strategy that mixes active materials and SEs for the cathode is a general way to decrease the ion transmission barrier at the cathode-electrolyte interface. 3 The active material concentration in the cathode is reduced as much as the SE portion increases by which the energy density of the ASSB is restricted. In addition, the mixing approach generally accompanies lattice mismatches between the cathode active materials and the SE, thus providing only limited improvements, which is imputed by random contacts between the cathode active materials and the SE during the mixingmore »
Operando Analysis of Interphase Dynamics in Anode-Free Solid-State Batteries with Sulfide Electrolytes
Sulfide solid electrolytes (SEs) show promise for Li metal solid-state batteries due to their high ionic conductivities and relative ease of manufacturing. However, many sulfide SEs suffer from limited electrochemical stability against Li metal electrodes. In this work, we use a suite of
operandoanalytical techniques to investigate the dynamics of solid electrolyte interphase (SEI) formation and the associated effects on Li plating. We contrast a sulfide SE that forms an electrically insulating SEI (Li6PS5Cl) with an SE that forms an SEI with electrically conducting phases present (Li10GeP2S12). Using anode-free cell configurations, where the Li/SE interface is formed against a current collector, we perform complimentary operandovideo microscopy and operandoX-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) experiments. The combination of these techniques allows for the interpretation of electrochemical voltage traces during Li plating. The electrically insulating nature of the SEI in Li6PS5Cl facilitates Li metal nucleation and plating after the initial SEI formation. In contrast, in cells that form an electronically conducting SEI, the onset of Li plating is suppressed, which is attributed to a low Faradaic efficiency from continuous SE decomposition. The insights in this study reveal how interphase dynamics control the transition from SEI formation to plating in anode-free solid-state batteries.
Extending the low-temperature operation of sodium metal batteries combining linear and cyclic ether-based electrolyte solutionsAbstract Nonaqueous sodium-based batteries are ideal candidates for the next generation of electrochemical energy storage devices. However, despite the promising performance at ambient temperature, their low-temperature (e.g., < 0 °C) operation is detrimentally affected by the increase in the electrolyte resistance and solid electrolyte interphase (SEI) instability. Here, to circumvent these issues, we propose specific electrolyte formulations comprising linear and cyclic ether-based solvents and sodium trifluoromethanesulfonate salt that are thermally stable down to −150 °C and enable the formation of a stable SEI at low temperatures. When tested in the Na||Na coin cell configuration, the low-temperature electrolytes enable long-term cycling down to −80 °C. Via ex situ physicochemical (e.g., X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, cryogenic transmission electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy) electrode measurements and density functional theory calculations, we investigate the mechanisms responsible for efficient low-temperature electrochemical performance. We also report the assembly and testing between −20 °C and −60 °C of full Na||Na 3 V 2 (PO 4 ) 3 coin cells. The cell tested at −40 °C shows an initial discharge capacity of 68 mAh g −1 with a capacity retention of approximately 94% after 100 cycles at 22 mA g −1 .
High-performance all-solid-state batteries enabled by salt bonding to perovskite in poly(ethylene oxide)Flexible and low-cost poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO)-based electrolytes are promising for all-solid-state Li-metal batteries because of their compatibility with a metallic lithium anode. However, the low room-temperature Li-ion conductivity of PEO solid electrolytes and severe lithium-dendrite growth limit their application in high-energy Li-metal batteries. Here we prepared a PEO/perovskite Li 3/8 Sr 7/16 Ta 3/4 Zr 1/4 O 3 composite electrolyte with a Li-ion conductivity of 5.4 × 10 −5 and 3.5 × 10 −4 S cm −1 at 25 and 45 °C, respectively; the strong interaction between the F − of TFSI − (bis-trifluoromethanesulfonimide) and the surface Ta 5+ of the perovskite improves the Li-ion transport at the PEO/perovskite interface. A symmetric Li/composite electrolyte/Li cell shows an excellent cyclability at a high current density up to 0.6 mA cm −2 . A solid electrolyte interphase layer formed in situ between the metallic lithium anode and the composite electrolyte suppresses lithium-dendrite formation and growth. All-solid-state Li|LiFePO 4 and high-voltage Li|LiNi 0.8 Mn 0.1 Co 0.1 O 2 batteries with the composite electrolyte have an impressive performance with high Coulombic efficiencies, small overpotentials, and good cycling stability.