Chakrabarti, Amit
; Swamy, Chaitanya
(Ed.)

A Boolean maximum constraint satisfaction problem, Max-CSP(f), is specified by a predicate f:{-1,1}^k → {0,1}. An n-variable instance of Max-CSP(f) consists of a list of constraints, each of which applies f to k distinct literals drawn from the n variables. For k = 2, Chou, Golovnev, and Velusamy [Chou et al., 2020] obtained explicit ratios characterizing the √ n-space streaming approximability of every predicate. For k ≥ 3, Chou, Golovnev, Sudan, and Velusamy [Chou et al., 2022] proved a general dichotomy theorem for √ n-space sketching algorithms: For every f, there exists α(f) ∈ (0,1] such that for every ε > 0, Max-CSP(f) is (α(f)-ε)-approximable by an O(log n)-space linear sketching algorithm, but (α(f)+ε)-approximation sketching algorithms require Ω(√n) space.
In this work, we give closed-form expressions for the sketching approximation ratios of multiple families of symmetric Boolean functions. Letting α'_k = 2^{-(k-1)} (1-k^{-2})^{(k-1)/2}, we show that for odd k ≥ 3, α(kAND) = α'_k, and for even k ≥ 2, α(kAND) = 2α'_{k+1}. Thus, for every k, kAND can be (2-o(1))2^{-k}-approximated by O(log n)-space sketching algorithms; we contrast this with a lower bound of Chou, Golovnev, Sudan, Velingker, and Velusamy [Chou et al., 2022] implying that streaming (2+ε)2^{-k}-approximations require Ω(n) space! We also resolve the ratio for the "at-least-(k-1)-1’s" function for all even k; the "exactly-(k+1)/2-1’s" function for odd k ∈ {3,…,51}; and fifteen other functions. We stress here that for general f, the dichotomy theorem in [Chou et al., 2022] only implies that α(f) can be computed to arbitrary precision in PSPACE, and thus closed-form expressions need not have existed a priori. Our analyses involve identifying and exploiting structural "saddle-point" properties of this dichotomy.
Separately, for all threshold functions, we give optimal "bias-based" approximation algorithms generalizing [Chou et al., 2020] while simplifying [Chou et al., 2022]. Finally, we investigate the √ n-space streaming lower bounds in [Chou et al., 2022], and show that they are incomplete for 3AND, i.e., they fail to rule out (α(3AND})-ε)-approximations in o(√ n) space.

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