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Title: Quantifying the impacts of right-turn-on-red, exclusive turn lanes and pedestrian movements on the efficiency of urban transportation networks
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. 102nd Annual Meeting of the Transportation Research Board
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National Science Foundation
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  1. d -Proline ( D Pro, D P) is widely utilized to form β-hairpin loops in engineered peptides that would otherwise be unstructured, most often as part of a D PG sub-unit that forms a β-turn. To observe whether D PG facilitated this effect in short protonated peptides, conformation specific IR–UV double resonance photofragment spectra of the cold (∼10 K) protonated D P and L P diastereomers of the pentapeptide YAPGA was carried out in the hydride stretch (2800–3700 cm −1 ) and amide I/II (1400–1800 cm −1 ) regions. A model localized Hamiltonian was developed to better describe the 1600–1800 cm −1 region commonly associated with the amide I vibrations. The CO stretch fundamentals experience extensive mixing with the N–H bending fundamentals of the NH 3 + group in these protonated peptides. The model Hamiltonian accounts for experiment in quantitative detail. In the D P diastereomer, all the population is funneled into a single conformer which presented as a type II β-turn with A and D P in the i + 1 and i + 2 positions, respectively. This structure was not the anticipated type II′ β-turn across D PG that we had hypothesized based on solution-phase propensities. Analysis of the conformational energy landscape shows that both steric and charge-induced effects play a role in the preferred formation of the type II β-turn. In contrast, the L P isomer forms three conformations with very different structures, none of which were type II/II′ β-turns, confirming that L PG is not a β-turn former. Finally, single-conformation spectroscopy was also carried out on the extended peptide [YAA D PGAAA + H] + to determine whether moving the protonated N-terminus further from D PG would lead to β-hairpin formation. Despite funneling its entire population into a single peptide backbone structure, the assigned structure is not a β-hairpin, but a concatenated type II/type II′ double β-turn that displaces the peptide backbone laterally by about 7.5 Å, but leaves the backbone oriented in its original direction. 
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  3. Correction for ‘Single-conformation spectroscopy of cold, protonated D PG-containing peptides: switching β-turn types and formation of a sequential type II/II′ double β-turn’ by John T. Lawler et al. , Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. , 2022, 24 , 2095–2109, 
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