This content will become publicly available on November 25, 2023
- Award ID(s):
- Publication Date:
- NSF-PAR ID:
- Journal Name:
- Frontiers in Neuroscience
- Sponsoring Org:
- National Science Foundation
More Like this
Driven by the expanse of Internet of Things (IoT) and Cyber-Physical Systems (CPS), there is an increasing demand to process streams of temporal data on embedded devices with limited energy and power resources. Among all potential solutions, neuromorphic computing with spiking neural networks (SNN) that mimic the behavior of brain, have recently been placed at the forefront. Encoding information into sparse and distributed spike events enables low-power implementations, and the complex spatial temporal dynamics of synapses and neurons enable SNNs to detect temporal pattern. However, most existing hardware SNN implementations use simplified neuron and synapse models ignoring synapse dynamic, which is critical for temporal pattern detection and other applications that require temporal dynamics. To adopt a more realistic synapse model in neuromorphic platform its significant computation overhead must be addressed. In this work, we propose an FPGA-based SNN with biologically realistic neuron and synapse for temporal information processing. An encoding scheme to convert continuous real-valued information into sparse spike events is presented. The event-driven implementation of synapse dynamic model and its hardware design that is optimized to exploit the sparsity are also presented. Finally, we train the SNN on various temporal pattern-learning tasks and evaluate its performance and efficiency asmore »
Reconfigurable Dataflow Optimization for Spatiotemporal Spiking Neural Computation on Systolic Array AcceleratorsSpiking neural networks (SNNs) offer a promising biologically-plausible computing model and lend themselves to ultra-low-power event-driven processing on neuromorphic processors. Compared with the conventional artificial neural networks, SNNs are well-suited for processing complex spatiotemporal data. Despite its significance, dataflow optimization of spiking neural accelerator architectures has not been extensively studied. Recognizing the need for efficient processing of complex spatiotemporal data while considering the all-or-none nature of spiking activities, we propose holistic reconfigurable dataflow optimization for systolic array acceleration of spiking convolutional networks (S-CNNs). A novel scheme is introduced for parallel acceleration of computation across multiple time points, which further allows for systemic optimization of variable tiling for a large performance and efficiency gains. We show how variable tiling, in particular, the positioning of the temporal dimension, can be targeted to optimize data movement, throughput, and energy efficiency. Furthermore, we explore joint layer-dependent dataflow and accelerator hardware optimization to further boost performance and energy efficiency. To support systemic design space exploration, we develop an SNN dataflow simulator capable of analyzing the throughput and energy dissipation of systolic array accelerators for any targeted S-CNN while considering the inherent spatiotemporal characteristics of spiking neural computation. The proposed techniques deliver orders of magnitude ofmore »
Re-Thinking CNN Frameworks for Time-Sensitive Autonomous-Driving Applications: Addressing an Industrial ChallengeVision-based perception systems are crucial for profitable autonomous-driving vehicle products. High accuracy in such perception systems is being enabled by rapidly evolving convolution neural networks (CNNs). To achieve a better understanding of its surrounding environment, a vehicle must be provided with full coverage via multiple cameras. However, when processing multiple video streams, existing CNN frameworks often fail to provide enough inference performance, particularly on embedded hardware constrained by size, weight, and power limits. This paper presents the results of an industrial case study that was conducted to re-think the design of CNN software to better utilize available hardware resources. In this study, techniques such as parallelism, pipelining, and the merging of per-camera images into a single composite image were considered in the context of a Drive PX2 embedded hardware platform. The study identifies a combination of techniques that can be applied to increase throughput (number of simultaneous camera streams) without significantly increasing per-frame latency (camera to CNN output) or reducing per-stream accuracy.
Spiking neural networks (SNNs) have emerged as a new generation of neural networks, presenting a brain-inspired event-driven model with advantages in spatiotemporal information processing. Due to the need for high power consumption of compute-intensive neural accelerators, adequate power delivery network (PDN) design is a key requirement to ensure power efficiency and integrity. However, PDN design for SNN accelerators has not been extensively studied despite its great potential benefit in energy efficiency. In this paper, we present the first study on dynamic heterogeneous voltage regulation (HVR) for spiking neural accelerators to maximize system energy efficiency while ensuring power integrity. We propose a novel sparse-workload-aware dynamic PDN control policy, which enables high energy efficiency of sparse spiking computation on a systolic array. By exploring sparse inputs and all-or-none nature of spiking computations for PDN control, we explore different types of PDNs to accelerate spiking convolutional neural networks (S-CNNs) trained with the dynamic vision sensor (DVS) gesture dataset. Furthermore, we demonstrate various power gating schemes to further optimize the proposed PDN architecture, which leads to a more than a three-fold reduction in total energy overhead for spiking neural computations on systolic array-based accelerators.
Network features found in the brain may help implement more efficient and robust neural networks. Spiking neural networks (SNNs) process spikes in the spatiotemporal domain and can offer better energy efficiency than deep neural networks. However, most SNN implementations rely on simple point neurons that neglect the rich neuronal and dendritic dynamics. Herein, a bio‐inspired columnar learning network (CLN) structure that employs feedforward, lateral, and feedback connections to make robust classification with sparse data is proposed. CLN is inspired by the mammalian neocortex, comprising cortical columns each containing multiple minicolumns formed by interacting pyramidal neurons. A column continuously processes spatiotemporal signals from its sensor, while learning spatial and temporal correlations between features in different regions of an object along with the sensor's movement through sensorimotor interaction. CLN can be implemented using memristor crossbars with a local learning rule, spiking timing‐dependent plasticity (STDP), which can be natively obtained in second‐order memristors. CLN allows inputs from multiple sensors to be simultaneously processed by different columns, resulting in higher classification accuracy and better noise tolerance. Analysis of networks implemented on memristor crossbars shows that the system can operate at very low power and high throughput, with high accuracy and robustness to noise.