skip to main content


Title: Coherent Phonon‐Induced Modulation of Charge Transfer in 2D Hybrid Perovskites
Abstract

Electron–phonon interactions play an essential role in charge transport and transfer processes in semiconductors. For most structures, tailoring electron–phonon interactions for specific functionality remains elusive. Here, it is shown that, in hybrid perovskites, coherent phonon modes can be used to manipulate charge transfer. In the 2D double perovskite, (AE2T)2AgBiI8(AE2T: 5,5“‐diylbis(amino‐ethyl)‐(2,2”‐(2)thiophene)), the valence band maximum derived from the [Ag0.5Bi0.5I4]2–framework lies in close proximity to the AE2T‐derived HOMO level, thereby forming a type‐II heterostructure. During transient absorption spectroscopy, pulsed excitation creates sustained coherent phonon modes, which periodically modulate the associated electronic levels. Thus, the energy offset at the organic–inorganic interface also oscillates periodically, providing a unique opportunity for modulation of interfacial charge transfer. Density‐functional theory corroborates the mechanism and identifies specific phonon modes as likely drivers of the coherent charge transfer. These observations are a striking example of how electron–phonon interactions can be used to manipulate fundamentally important charge and energy transfer processes in hybrid perovskites.

 
more » « less
Award ID(s):
1729297
NSF-PAR ID:
10404394
Author(s) / Creator(s):
 ;  ;  ;  ;  ;  ;  ;  ;  
Publisher / Repository:
Wiley Blackwell (John Wiley & Sons)
Date Published:
Journal Name:
Advanced Functional Materials
Volume:
33
Issue:
21
ISSN:
1616-301X
Format(s):
Medium: X
Sponsoring Org:
National Science Foundation
More Like this
  1. Abstract

    Following the rejuvenation of 3D organic–inorganic hybrid perovskites, like CH3NH3PbI3, (quasi)‐2D Ruddlesden–Popper soft halide perovskites R2An−1PbnX3n+1have recently become another focus in the optoelectronic and photovoltaic device community. Although quasi‐2D perovskites were first introduced to stabilize optoelectronic/photovoltaic devices against moisture, more interesting properties and device applications, such as solar cells, light‐emitting diodes, white‐light emitters, lasers, and polaritonic emission, have followed. While delicate engineering design has pushed the performance of various devices forward remarkably, understanding of the fundamental properties, especially the charge‐transfer process, electron–phonon interactions, and the growth mechanism in (quasi)‐2D halide perovskites, remains limited and even controversial. Here, after reviewing the current understanding and the nexus between optoelectronic/photovoltaic properties of 2D and 3D halide perovskites, the growth mechanisms, charge‐transfer processes, vibrational properties, and electron–phonon interactions of soft halide perovskites, mainly in quasi‐2D systems, are discussed. It is suggested that single‐crystal‐based studies are needed to deepen the understanding of the aforementioned fundamental properties, and will eventually contribute to device performance.

     
    more » « less
  2. Abstract

    Excitons, bound electron–hole pairs, in two-dimensional hybrid organic inorganic perovskites (2D HOIPs) are capable of forming hybrid light-matter states known as exciton-polaritons (E–Ps) when the excitonic medium is confined in an optical cavity. In the case of 2D HOIPs, they can self-hybridize into E–Ps at specific thicknesses of the HOIP crystals that form a resonant optical cavity with the excitons. However, the fundamental properties of these self-hybridized E–Ps in 2D HOIPs, including their role in ultrafast energy and/or charge transfer at interfaces, remain unclear. Here, we demonstrate that >0.5 µm thick 2D HOIP crystals on Au substrates are capable of supporting multiple-orders of self-hybridized E–P modes. These E–Ps have high Q factors (>100) and modulate the optical dispersion for the crystal to enhance sub-gap absorption and emission. Through varying excitation energy and ultrafast measurements, we also confirm energy transfer from higher energy E–Ps to lower energy E–Ps. Finally, we also demonstrate that E–Ps are capable of charge transport and transfer at interfaces. Our findings provide new insights into charge and energy transfer in E–Ps opening new opportunities towards their manipulation for polaritonic devices.

     
    more » « less
  3. Ultrashort light pulses can selectively excite charges, spins, and phonons in materials, providing a powerful approach for manipulating their properties. Here we use femtosecond laser pulses to coherently manipulate the electron and phonon distributions, and their couplings, in the charge-density wave (CDW) material 1T-TaSe2. After exciting the material with a femtosecond pulse, fast spatial smearing of the laser-excited electrons launches a coherent lattice breathing mode, which in turn modulates the electron temperature. This finding is in contrast to all previous observations in multiple materials to date, where the electron temperature decreases monotonically via electron–phonon scattering. By tuning the laser fluence, the magnitude of the electron temperature modulation changes from ∼200 K in the case of weak excitation, to ∼1,000 K for strong laser excitation. We also observe a phase change of π in the electron temperature modulation at a critical fluence of 0.7 mJ/cm2, which suggests a switching of the dominant coupling mechanism between the coherent phonon and electrons. Our approach opens up routes for coherently manipulating the interactions and properties of two-dimensional and other quantum materials using light.

     
    more » « less
  4. Abstract

    Exciton dynamics can be strongly affected by lattice vibrations through electron-phonon coupling. This is rarely explored in two-dimensional magnetic semiconductors. Focusing on bilayer CrI3, we first show the presence of strong electron-phonon coupling through temperature-dependent photoluminescence and absorption spectroscopy. We then report the observation of periodic broad modes up to the 8th order in Raman spectra, attributed to the polaronic character of excitons. We establish that this polaronic character is dominated by the coupling between the charge-transfer exciton at 1.96 eV and a longitudinal optical phonon at 120.6 cm−1. We further show that the emergence of long-range magnetic order enhances the electron-phonon coupling strength by ~50% and that the transition from layered antiferromagnetic to ferromagnetic order tunes the spectral intensity of the periodic broad modes, suggesting a strong coupling among the lattice, charge and spin in two-dimensional CrI3. Our study opens opportunities for tailoring light-matter interactions in two-dimensional magnetic semiconductors.

     
    more » « less
  5. Abstract

    Hybrid organic–inorganic perovskites such as methylammonium lead iodide have emerged as promising semiconductors for energy‐relevant applications. The interactions between charge carriers and lattice vibrations, giving rise to polarons, have been invoked to explain some of their extraordinary optoelectronic properties. Here, time‐resolved optical spectroscopy is performed, with off‐resonant pumping and electronic probing, to examine several representative lead iodide perovskites. The temporal oscillations of electronic bandgaps induced by coherent lattice vibrations are reported, which is attributed to antiphase octahedral rotations that dominate in the examined 3D and 2D hybrid perovskites. The off‐resonant pumping scheme permits a simplified observation of changes in the bandgap owing to theAgvibrational mode, which is qualitatively different from vibrational modes of other symmetries and without increased complexity of photogenerated electronic charges. The work demonstrates a strong correlation between the lead–iodide octahedral framework and electronic transitions, and provides further insights into the manipulation of coherent optical phonons and related properties in hybrid perovskites on ultrafast timescales.

     
    more » « less