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Title: Missing the bigger picture: Why insect monitoring programs are limited in their ability to document the effects of habitat loss
Abstract

The fate of insects in the Anthropocene has been widely discussed in the scientific literature, the popular media, and in policy circles. This recent attention is justified because reductions in insect abundance and diversity have the potential to undermine the stability of terrestrial ecosystems. Reports of insect declines have also been accompanied by skepticism that is healthy and to be expected in scientific discussion. However, we are concerned about a prevalent misconception that equates reports from monitored natural areas with the global status of insects. In the vast majority of cases, areas monitored for arthropods are undeveloped and thus do not record or even necessarily reflect the masses of insects that are continuously being impacted by habitat loss to urban, suburban and agricultural expansion. We address this misconception and discuss ways in which conservation and policy can be enhanced by correctly locating results from insect monitoring programs within our broader knowledge of biodiversity loss.

 
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Award ID(s):
2114793
NSF-PAR ID:
10405063
Author(s) / Creator(s):
 ;  ;  ;  ;  ;  ;  
Publisher / Repository:
Wiley-Blackwell
Date Published:
Journal Name:
Conservation Letters
Volume:
16
Issue:
3
ISSN:
1755-263X
Format(s):
Medium: X
Sponsoring Org:
National Science Foundation
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  1. Abstract

    Over the last three decades, insects have been utilized to provide a deep and fundamental understanding of many human diseases and disorders. Here, we present arguments for insects as models to understand general principles underlying hearing loss. Despite ∼600 million years since the last common ancestor of vertebrates and invertebrates, we share an overwhelming degree of genetic homology particularly with respect to auditory organ development and maintenance. Despite the anatomical differences between human and insect auditory organs, both share physiological principles of operation. We explain why these observations are expected and highlight areas in hearing loss research in which insects can provide insight. We start by briefly introducing the evolutionary journey of auditory organs, the reasons for using insect auditory organs for hearing loss research, and the tools and approaches available in insects. Then, the first half of the review focuses on auditory development and auditory disorders with a genetic cause. The second half analyses the physiological and genetic consequences of ageing and short‐ and long‐term changes as a result of noise exposure. We finish with complex age and noise interactions in auditory systems. In this review, we present some of the evidence and arguments to support the use of insects to study mechanisms and potential treatments for hearing loss in humans. Obviously, insects cannot fully substitute for all aspects of human auditory function and loss of function, although there are many important questions that can be addressed in an animal model for which there are important ethical, practical and experimental advantages.image

     
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  2. null (Ed.)
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  4. PLEASE CONTACT AUTHORS IF YOU CONTRIBUTE AND WOULD LIKE TO BE LISTED AS A CO-AUTHOR. (this message will be removed some time weeks/months after the first publication)

    Terrestrial Parasite Tracker indexed biotic interactions and review summary.

    The Terrestrial Parasite Tracker (TPT) project began in 2019 and is funded by the National Science foundation to mobilize data from vector and ectoparasite collections to data aggregators (e.g., iDigBio, GBIF) to help build a comprehensive picture of arthropod host-association evolution, distributions, and the ecological interactions of disease vectors which will assist scientists, educators, land managers, and policy makers. Arthropod parasites often are important to human and wildlife health and safety as vectors of pathogens, and it is critical to digitize these specimens so that they, and their biotic interaction data, will be available to help understand and predict the spread of human and wildlife disease.

    This data publication contains versioned TPT associated datasets and related data products that were tracked, reviewed and indexed by Global Biotic Interactions (GloBI) and associated tools. GloBI provides open access to finding species interaction data (e.g., predator-prey, pollinator-plant, pathogen-host, parasite-host) by combining existing open datasets using open source software.

    If you have questions or comments about this publication, please open an issue at https://github.com/ParasiteTracker/tpt-reporting or contact the authors by email.

    Funding:
    The creation of this archive was made possible by the National Science Foundation award "Collaborative Research: Digitization TCN: Digitizing collections to trace parasite-host associations and predict the spread of vector-borne disease," Award numbers DBI:1901932 and DBI:1901926

    References:
    Jorrit H. Poelen, James D. Simons and Chris J. Mungall. (2014). Global Biotic Interactions: An open infrastructure to share and analyze species-interaction datasets. Ecological Informatics. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ecoinf.2014.08.005.

    GloBI Data Review Report

    Datasets under review:
     - University of Michigan Museum of Zoology Insect Division. Full Database Export 2020-11-20 provided by Erika Tucker and Barry Oconner. accessed via https://github.com/EMTuckerLabUMMZ/ummzi/archive/6731357a377e9c2748fc931faa2ff3dc0ce3ea7a.zip on 2022-06-24T14:02:48.801Z
     - Academy of Natural Sciences Entomology Collection for the Parasite Tracker Project accessed via https://github.com/globalbioticinteractions/ansp-para/archive/5e6592ad09ec89ba7958266ad71ec9d5d21d1a44.zip on 2022-06-24T14:04:22.091Z
     - Bernice Pauahi Bishop Museum, J. Linsley Gressitt Center for Research in Entomology accessed via https://github.com/globalbioticinteractions/bpbm-ent/archive/c085398dddd36f8a1169b9cf57de2a572229341b.zip on 2022-06-24T14:04:37.692Z
     - Texas A&M University, Biodiversity Teaching and Research Collections accessed via https://github.com/globalbioticinteractions/brtc-para/archive/f0a718145b05ed484c4d88947ff712d5f6395446.zip on 2022-06-24T14:06:40.154Z
     - Brigham Young University Arthropod Museum accessed via https://github.com/globalbioticinteractions/byu-byuc/archive/4a609ac6a9a03425e2720b6cdebca6438488f029.zip on 2022-06-24T14:06:51.420Z
     - California Academy of Sciences Entomology accessed via https://github.com/globalbioticinteractions/cas-ent/archive/562aea232ec74ab615f771239451e57b057dc7c0.zip on 2022-06-24T14:07:16.371Z
     - Clemson University Arthropod Collection accessed via https://github.com/globalbioticinteractions/cu-cuac/archive/6cdcbbaa4f7cec8e1eac705be3a999bc5259e00f.zip on 2022-06-24T14:07:40.925Z
     - Denver Museum of Nature and Science (DMNS) Parasite specimens (DMNS:Para) accessed via https://github.com/globalbioticinteractions/dmns-para/archive/a037beb816226eb8196533489ee5f98a6dfda452.zip on 2022-06-24T14:08:00.730Z
     - Field Museum of Natural History IPT accessed via https://github.com/globalbioticinteractions/fmnh/archive/6bfc1b7e46140e93f5561c4e837826204adb3c2f.zip on 2022-06-24T14:18:51.995Z
     - Illinois Natural History Survey Insect Collection accessed via https://github.com/globalbioticinteractions/inhs-insects/archive/38692496f590577074c7cecf8ea37f85d0594ae1.zip on 2022-06-24T14:19:37.563Z
     - UMSP / University of Minnesota / University of Minnesota Insect Collection accessed via https://github.com/globalbioticinteractions/min-umsp/archive/3f1b9d32f947dcb80b9aaab50523e097f0e8776e.zip on 2022-06-24T14:20:27.232Z
     - Milwaukee Public Museum Biological Collections Data Portal accessed via https://github.com/globalbioticinteractions/mpm/archive/9f44e99c49ec5aba3f8592cfced07c38d3223dcd.zip on 2022-06-24T14:20:46.185Z
     - Museum for Southern Biology (MSB) Parasite Collection accessed via https://github.com/globalbioticinteractions/msb-para/archive/178a0b7aa0a8e14b3fe953e770703fe331eadacc.zip on 2022-06-24T15:16:07.223Z
     - The Albert J. Cook Arthropod Research Collection accessed via https://github.com/globalbioticinteractions/msu-msuc/archive/38960906380443bd8108c9e44aeff4590d8d0b50.zip on 2022-06-24T16:09:40.702Z
     - Ohio State University Acarology Laboratory accessed via https://github.com/globalbioticinteractions/osal-ar/archive/876269d66a6a94175dbb6b9a604897f8032b93dd.zip on 2022-06-24T16:10:00.281Z
     - Frost Entomological Museum, Pennsylvania State University accessed via https://github.com/globalbioticinteractions/psuc-ento/archive/30b1f96619a6e9f10da18b42fb93ff22cc4f72e2.zip on 2022-06-24T16:10:07.741Z
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     - Texas A&M University Insect Collection accessed via https://github.com/globalbioticinteractions/tamuic-ent/archive/f261a8c192021408da67c39626a4aac56e3bac41.zip on 2022-06-24T16:10:58.496Z
     - University of California Santa Barbara Invertebrate Zoology Collection accessed via https://github.com/globalbioticinteractions/ucsb-izc/archive/825678ad02df93f6d4469f9d8b7cc30151b9aa45.zip on 2022-06-24T16:12:29.854Z
     - University of Hawaii Insect Museum accessed via https://github.com/globalbioticinteractions/uhim/archive/53fa790309e48f25685e41ded78ce6a51bafde76.zip on 2022-06-24T16:12:41.408Z
     - University of New Hampshire Collection of Insects and other Arthropods UNHC-UNHC accessed via https://github.com/globalbioticinteractions/unhc/archive/f72575a72edda8a4e6126de79b4681b25593d434.zip on 2022-06-24T16:12:59.500Z
     - Scott L. Gardner and Gabor R. Racz (2021). University of Nebraska State Museum - Parasitology. Harold W. Manter Laboratory of Parasitology. University of Nebraska State Museum. accessed via https://github.com/globalbioticinteractions/unl-nsm/archive/6bcd8aec22e4309b7f4e8be1afe8191d391e73c6.zip on 2022-06-24T16:13:06.914Z
     - Data were obtained from specimens belonging to the United States National Museum of Natural History (USNM), Smithsonian Institution, Washington DC and digitized by the Walter Reed Biosystematics Unit (WRBU). accessed via https://github.com/globalbioticinteractions/usnmentflea/archive/ce5cb1ed2bbc13ee10062b6f75a158fd465ce9bb.zip on 2022-06-24T16:13:38.013Z
     - US National Museum of Natural History Ixodes Records accessed via https://github.com/globalbioticinteractions/usnm-ixodes/archive/c5fcd5f34ce412002783544afb628a33db7f47a6.zip on 2022-06-24T16:13:45.666Z
     - Price Institute of Parasite Research, School of Biological Sciences, University of Utah accessed via https://github.com/globalbioticinteractions/utah-piper/archive/43da8db550b5776c1e3d17803831c696fe9b8285.zip on 2022-06-24T16:13:54.724Z
     - University of Wisconsin Stevens Point, Stephen J. Taft Parasitological Collection accessed via https://github.com/globalbioticinteractions/uwsp-para/archive/f9d0d52cd671731c7f002325e84187979bca4a5b.zip on 2022-06-24T16:14:04.745Z
     - Giraldo-Calderón, G. I., Emrich, S. J., MacCallum, R. M., Maslen, G., Dialynas, E., Topalis, P., … Lawson, D. (2015). VectorBase: an updated bioinformatics resource for invertebrate vectors and other organisms related with human diseases. Nucleic acids research, 43(Database issue), D707–D713. doi:10.1093/nar/gku1117. accessed via https://github.com/globalbioticinteractions/vectorbase/archive/00d6285cd4e9f4edd18cb2778624ab31b34b23b8.zip on 2022-06-24T16:14:11.965Z
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     - Yale University Peabody Museum Collections Data Portal accessed via https://github.com/globalbioticinteractions/yale-peabody/archive/43be869f17749d71d26fc820c8bd931d6149fe8e.zip on 2022-06-24T16:23:29.289Z

    Generated on:
    2022-06-24

    by:
    GloBI's Elton 0.12.4 
    (see https://github.com/globalbioticinteractions/elton).

    Note that all files ending with .tsv are files formatted 
    as UTF8 encoded tab-separated values files.

    https://www.iana.org/assignments/media-types/text/tab-separated-values


    Included in this review archive are:

    README:
      This file.

    review_summary.tsv:
      Summary across all reviewed collections of total number of distinct review comments.

    review_summary_by_collection.tsv:
      Summary by reviewed collection of total number of distinct review comments.

    indexed_interactions_by_collection.tsv: 
      Summary of number of indexed interaction records by institutionCode and collectionCode.

    review_comments.tsv.gz:
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    indexed_interactions_full.tsv.gz:
      All indexed interactions for all reviewed collections.

    indexed_interactions_simple.tsv.gz:
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    datasets_under_review.tsv:
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    elton.jar: 
      Program used to update datasets and generate the review reports and associated indexed interactions.

    datasets.zip:
      Source datasets used by elton.jar in process of executing the generate_report.sh script.

    generate_report.sh:
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    generate_report.log:
      Log file generated as part of running the generate_report.sh script
     

     
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  5. Abstract

    Recent reports of insect declines have caused concern among scientists and the public. Declines in insect abundance and biomass are ubiquitous across many climatic zones and have been largely attributed to anthropogenic land use intensification and climate change. However, there are few examples of long‐term continuous data in relatively undisturbed environments, as opposed to agricultural landscapes. We sampled insects weekly from 1986 to 2020 in a protected subalpine meadow in Colorado, which is embedded in an undisturbed natural landscape. During the study period, summers became warmer, while winters became drier. Insect biomass declined by ∼47% and abundance declined by ∼61.5% over the last 35 years. Insect declines occurred in concert with changes in climate, as some climate factors were correlated with insect abundance and biomass. Specifically, insect abundance was lower during years with less summer precipitation and winter snowfall, and to a lesser degree with warmer temperatures. In subalpine systems, changes in precipitation and warmer temperatures are expected to continue under climate change; thus, continued insect declines might be expected even in relatively undisturbed habitats.

     
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