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Title: On the general dyadic grids on
Abstract Adjacent dyadic systems are pivotal in analysis and related fields to study continuous objects via collections of dyadic ones. In our prior work (joint with Jiang, Olson, and Wei), we describe precise necessary and sufficient conditions for two dyadic systems on the real line to be adjacent. Here, we extend this work to all dimensions, which turns out to have many surprising difficulties due to the fact that $d+1$ , not $2^d$ , grids is the optimal number in an adjacent dyadic system in $\mathbb {R}^d$ . As a byproduct, we show that a collection of $d+1$ dyadic systems in $\mathbb {R}^d$ is adjacent if and only if the projection of any two of them onto any coordinate axis are adjacent on $\mathbb {R}$ . The underlying geometric structures that arise in this higher-dimensional generalization are interesting objects themselves, ripe for future study; these lead us to a compact, geometric description of our main result. We describe these structures, along with what adjacent dyadic (and n -adic, for any n ) systems look like, from a variety of contexts, relating them to previous work, as well as illustrating a specific exa.  more » « less
Award ID(s):
2231990 1954407
Author(s) / Creator(s):
Date Published:
Journal Name:
Canadian Journal of Mathematics
Page Range / eLocation ID:
1 to 29
Medium: X
Sponsoring Org:
National Science Foundation
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Cores were then capped and transferred on ice to our laboratory at the University of South Florida (Tampa, Florida, USA), where they were combined in plastic zipper bags, and homogenized by hand into plot-level composite samples on the day they were collected. A damp soil subsample was immediately taken from each composite sample to initiate 1 y incubations for determination of active C and N (see below). The remainder of each composite sample was then placed in a drying oven (60 °C) for 1 week with frequent mixing of the soil to prevent aggregation and liberate water. Organic wetland soils are sometimes dried at 70 °C, however high drying temperatures can volatilize non-water liquids and oxidize and decompose organic matter, so 50 °C is also a common drying temperature for organic soils (Gardner 1986, "Methods of Soil Analysis: Part 1", Soil Science Society of America); we accordingly chose 60 °C as a compromise between sufficient water removal and avoidance of non-water mass loss. 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Inorganic C concentrations are likely even lower in our samples from under vegetation, where organic matter would dilute the contribution of inorganic C to soil mass. Nevertheless, the presence of a small inorganic C pool in our soils may be counted in the total C values we report. Extractable organic C is necessarily of organic C origin given the method (sparging with HCl) used in detection. Active C and N represent the fractions of organic C and N that are mineralizable by soil microorganisms under aerobic conditions in long-term soil incubations. To quantify active C and N, 60 g of field-moist soil were apportioned from each composite sample, placed in a filtration apparatus, and incubated in the dark at 25 °C and field capacity moisture for 365 d (as in Lewis et al., 2014, Ecosphere 5, art59). Moisture levels were maintained by frequently weighing incubated soil and wetting them up to target mass. 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Active N was then quantified as the total mass of mineral N leached and extracted. Mineral N in leached and extracted solutions was detected as NH_4-N and NO_2-N + NO_3-N via colorimetry as above. This incubation technique precludes new C and N inputs and persistently leaches mineral N, forcing microorganisms to meet demand by mineralizing existing pools, and thereby directly assays the potential activity of soil organic C and N pools present at the time of soil sampling. Because this analysis commences with disrupting soil physical structure, it is biased toward higher estimates of active fractions. Calculations. Non-mobile C and N fractions were computed as total C and N concentrations minus the extractable and active fractions of each element. 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