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Title: Impact of gaps on the flow statistics in an emergent rigid canopy
High-resolution large eddy simulations and complementary laboratory experiments using particle image velocimetry were performed to provide a detailed quantitative assessment of flow response to gaps in cylinder arrays. The base canopy consists of a dense array of emergent rigid cylinders placed in a regular staggered pattern. The gaps varied in length from [Formula: see text] to 24, in intervals of 4 d, where d is the diameter of the cylinders. The analysis was performed under subcritical conditions with Froude numbers [Formula: see text] and bulk Reynolds numbers [Formula: see text]. Results show that the gaps affect the flow statistics at the upstream and downstream proximity of the canopy. The affected zone was [Formula: see text] for the mean flow and [Formula: see text] for the second-order statistics. Dimensionless time-averaged streamwise velocity within the gap exhibited minor variability with gap spacing; however, in-plane turbulent kinetic energy, k, showed a consistent decay rate when normalized with that at [Formula: see text] from the beginning of the gap. The emergent canopy acts as a passive turbulence generator for the gap flow for practical purposes. The streamwise dependence of k follows an exponential trend within [Formula: see text] and transitions to a power-law at [Formula: see text]. The substantially lower maximum values of k within the gap compared to k within the canopy evidence a limitation of gap measurements representative of canopy flow statistics. We present a base framework for estimating representative in-canopy statistics from measurements in the gap.  more » « less
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Physics of Fluids
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National Science Foundation
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