Let us fix a prime $\Gamma <p$
 Award ID(s):
 1800251
 NSFPAR ID:
 10408803
 Editor(s):
 Daras, N.; Rassias, T.
 Date Published:
 Journal Name:
 Approximation and Computation in Science and Engineering
 Page Range / eLocation ID:
 573588
 Format(s):
 Medium: X
 Sponsoring Org:
 National Science Foundation
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On the perturbation effect and LET dependence of beam quality correction factors in carbon ion beams
Abstract Background In a recent study, we reported beam quality correction factors,
f_{Q} , in carbon ion beams using Monte Carlo (MC) methods for a cylindrical and a parallel‐plate ionization chamber (IC). A non‐negligible perturbation effect was observed; however, the magnitude of the perturbation correction due to the specific IC subcomponents was not included. Furthermore, the stopping power data presented in the International Commission on Radiation Units and Measurements (ICRU) report 73 were used, whereas the latest stopping power data have been reported in the ICRU report 90.Purpose The aim of this study was to extend our previous work by computing
f_{Q} correction factors using the ICRU 90 stopping power data and by reporting IC‐specific perturbation correction factors. Possible energy or linear energy transfer (LET) dependence of thef_{Q} correction factor was investigated by simulating both pristine beams and spread‐out Bragg peaks (SOBPs).Methods The TOol for PArticle Simulation (TOPAS)/GEANT4 MC code was used in this study. A 30 × 30 × 50 cm^{3}water phantom was simulated with a uniform 10 × 10 cm^{2}parallel beam incident on the surface. A Farmer‐type cylindrical IC (Exradin A12) and two parallel‐plate ICs (Exradin P11 and A11) were simulated in TOPAS using the manufacturer‐provided geometrical drawings. The
f_{Q} correction factor was calculated in pristine carbon ion beams in the 150–450 MeV/u energy range at 2 cm depth and in the middle of the flat region of four SOBPs. Thek_{Q} correction factor was calculated by simulating thef_{Qo} correction factor in a^{60}Co beam at 5 cm depth. The perturbation correction factors due to the presence of the individual IC subcomponents, such as the displacement effect in the air cavity, collecting electrode, chamber wall, and chamber stem, were calculated at 2 cm depth for monoenergetic beams only. Additionally, the mean dose‐averaged and track‐averaged LET was calculated at the depths at which thef_{Q} was calculated.Results The ICRU 90
f_{Q} correction factors were reported. Thep_{dis} correction factor was found to be significant for the cylindrical IC with magnitudes up to 1.70%. The individual perturbation corrections for the parallel‐plate ICs were <1.0% except for the A11p_{cel} correction at the lowest energy. Thef_{Q} correction for the P11 IC exhibited an energy dependence of >1.00% and displayed differences up to 0.87% between pristine beams and SOBPs. Conversely, thef_{Q} for A11 and A12 displayed a minimal energy dependence of <0.50%. The energy dependence was found to manifest in the LET dependence for the P11 IC. A statistically significant LET dependence was found only for the P11 IC in pristine beams only with a magnitude of <1.10%.Conclusions The perturbation and
k_{Q} correction factor should be calculated for the specific IC to be used in carbon ion beam reference dosimetry as a function of beam quality.