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Title: Near-field enhancement of optical second harmonic generation in hybrid gold–lithium niobate nanostructures

Nanophotonics research has focused recently on the ability of nonlinear optical processes to mediate and transform optical signals in a myriad of novel devices, including optical modulators, transducers, color filters, photodetectors, photon sources, and ultrafast optical switches. The inherent weakness of optical nonlinearities at smaller scales has, however, hindered the realization of efficient miniaturized devices, and strategies for enhancing both device efficiencies and synthesis throughput via nanoengineering remain limited. Here, we demonstrate a novel mechanism by which second harmonic generation, a prototypical nonlinear optical phenomenon, from individual lithium niobate particles can be significantly enhanced through nonradiative coupling to the localized surface plasmon resonances of embedded gold nanoparticles. A joint experimental and theoretical investigation of single mesoporous lithium niobate particles coated with a dispersed layer of ~10 nm diameter gold nanoparticles shows that a ~32-fold enhancement of second harmonic generation can be achieved without introducing finely tailored radiative nanoantennas to mediate photon transfer to or from the nonlinear material. This work highlights the limitations of current strategies for enhancing nonlinear optical phenomena and proposes a route through which a new class of subwavelength nonlinear optical platforms can be designed to maximize nonlinear efficiencies through near-field energy exchange.

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Award ID(s):
1936100 1954393
Author(s) / Creator(s):
; ; ; ;
Publisher / Repository:
Nature Publishing Group
Date Published:
Journal Name:
Light: Science & Applications
Medium: X
Sponsoring Org:
National Science Foundation
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