skip to main content

Title: A Surface Modification Strategy Towards Reversible Na-ion Intercalation on Graphitic Carbon Using Fluorinated Few-Layer Graphene
Na-ion batteries (NIBs) are proposed as a promising candidate for beyond Li-ion chemistries, however, a key challenge associated with NIBs is the inability to achieve intercalation in graphite anodes. This phenomenon has been investigated and is believed to arise due to the thermodynamic instability of Na-intercalated graphite. We have recently demonstrated theoretical calculations showing it is possible to achieve thermodynamically stable Na-intercalated graphene structures with a fluorine surface modifier. Here, we present experimental evidence that Na + intercalation is indeed possible in fluorinated few-layer graphene (F-FLG) structures using cyclic voltammetry (CV), ion-sensitive scanning electrochemical microscopy (SECM) and in situ Raman spectroscopy. SECM and Raman spectroscopy confirmed Na + intercalation in F-FLG, while CV measurements allowed us to quantify Na-intercalated F-FLG stoichiometries around NaC 14–18 . These stoichiometries are higher than the previously reported values of NaC 186 in graphite. Our experiments revealed that reversible Na + ion intercalation also requires a pre-formed Li-based SEI in addition to the surface fluorination, thereby highlighting the critical role of SEI in controlling ion-transfer kinetics in alkali-ion batteries. In summary, our findings highlight the use of surface modification and careful study of electrode-electrolyte interfaces and interphases as an enabling strategy for NIBs.  more » « less
Award ID(s):
1720633 1905803
Author(s) / Creator(s):
; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ;
Date Published:
Journal Name:
Journal of The Electrochemical Society
Page Range / eLocation ID:
Medium: X
Sponsoring Org:
National Science Foundation
More Like this
  1. Abstract

    The solid electrolyte interphase (SEI) is a dynamic, electronically insulating film that forms on the negative electrode of Li+batteries (LIBs) and enables ion movement to/from the interface while preventing electrolyte breakdown. However, there is limited comparative understanding of LIB SEIs with respect to those formed on Na+and K+electrolytes for emerging battery concepts. We used scanning electrochemical microscopy (SECM) for the in situ interfacial analysis of incipient SEIs in Li+, K+and Na+electrolytes formed on multi‐layer graphene. Feedback images using 300 nm SECM probes and ion‐sensitive measurements indicated a superior passivation and highest cation flux for a Li+‐SEI in contrast to Na+and K+‐SEIs. Ex situ X‐ray photoelectron spectroscopy indicated significant fluoride formation for only Li+and Na+‐SEIs, enabling correlation to in situ SECM measurements. While SEI chemistry remains complex, these electroanalytical methods reveal links between chemical variables and the interfacial properties of materials for energy storage.

    more » « less
  2. null (Ed.)
    Na-ion batteries (NIBs) are promising alternatives to Li-ion batteries (LIBs) due to the low cost, abundance, and high sustainability of sodium resources. However, the high performance of inorganic electrode materials in LIBs does not extend to NIBs because of the larger ion size of Na + than Li + and more complicated electrochemistry. Therefore, it is vital to search for high-performance electrode materials for NIBs. Organic electrode materials (OEMs) with the advantages of high structural tunability and abundant structural diversity show great promise in developing high-performance NIBs. To achieve advanced OEMs for NIBs, a fundamental understanding of the structure–performance correlation is desired for rational structure design and performance optimization. In this review, recent advances in developing OEMs for non-aqueous, aqueous, and all-solid-state NIBs are presented. The challenges, advantages, mechanisms, development, and applications of advanced OEMs in NIBs are also discussed. Perspectives for the innovation of structure design principle and future research direction of OEMs in non-aqueous, aqueous, and all-solid-state NIBs are provided. 
    more » « less
  3. Carbonate-based electrolytes are widely used in Li-ion batteries but are limited by a small operating temperature window and poor cycling with silicon-containing graphitic anodes. The lack of non-carbonate electrolyte alternatives such as ether-based electrolytes is due to undesired solvent co-intercalation that occurs with graphitic anodes. Here, we show that fluoroethers are the first class of ether solvents to intrinsically support reversible lithium-ion intercalation into graphite without solvent co-intercalation at conventional salt concentrations. In full cells using a graphite anode, they enable 10-fold higher energy densities compared to conventional ethers, and better thermal stability over carbonate electrolytes (operation up to 60 °C) by producing a robust solvent-derived solid electrolyte interphase (SEI). As single-solvent–single-salt electrolytes, they remarkably outperform carbonate electrolytes with fluoroethylene carbonate (FEC) and vinylene carbonate (VC) additives when cycled with graphite–silicon composite anodes. Our molecular design strategy opens a new class of electrolytes that can enable next generation Li-ion batteries with higher energy density and a wider working temperature window. 
    more » « less
  4. Ions at battery interfaces participate in both the solid-electrolyte interphase (SEI) formation and the subsequent energy storage mechanism. However, few in situ methods can directly track interfacial Li + dynamics. Herein, we report on scanning electrochemical microscopy with Li + sensitive probes for its in situ , localized tracking during SEI formation and intercalation. We followed the potential-dependent reactivity of edge plane graphite influenced by the interfacial consumption of Li + by competing processes. Cycling in the SEI formation region revealed reversible ionic processes ascribed to surface redox, as well as irreversible SEI formation. Cycling at more negative potentials activated reversible (de)intercalation. Modeling the ion-sensitive probe response yielded Li + intercalation rate constants between 10 −4 to 10 −5 cm s −1 . Our studies allow decoupling of charge-transfer steps at complex battery interfaces and create opportunities for interrogating reactivity at individual sites. 
    more » « less
  5. Abstract

    Anodes for lithium metal batteries, sodium metal batteries, and potassium metal batteries are susceptible to failure due to dendrite growth. This review details the structure–chemistry–performance relations in membranes that stabilize the anodes’ solid electrolyte interphase (SEI), allowing for stable electrochemical plating/stripping. Case studies involving Li, Na, and K are presented to illustrate key concepts. “Classical” versus “modern” understandings of the SEI are described, with an emphasis on the new structural insights obtained through novel analytical techniques, including in situ liquid‐secondary ion mass spectroscopy, titration gas chromatography, and tip‐enhanced Raman spectroscopy. This Review highlights diverse approaches for increasing SEI stability, either by inserting a secondary layer between the native SEI and the separator, or by combining the membrane with a native SEI to form a hybrid composite. Exciting and nonintuitive findings are discussed, such as that the metal anode roughness profoundly affects the SEI structure and stability, or that organic artificial SEI‐layers may be more effective than the native inorganic–organic SEIs. Emerging multifunctional architectures are presented, which serve a dual role as metal hosts and metal surface protection layers. Throughout the Review, fruitful future research directions and the critical areas where there is incomplete understanding are discussed.

    more » « less