Metasurfaces control light propagation at the nanoscale for applications in both free-space and surface-confined geometries. However, dynamically changing the properties of metasurfaces can be a major challenge. Here we demonstrate a reconfigurable hyperbolic metasurface comprised of a heterostructure of isotopically enriched hexagonal boron nitride (hBN) in direct contact with the phase-change material (PCM) single-crystal vanadium dioxide (VO2). Metallic and dielectric domains in VO2provide spatially localized changes in the local dielectric environment, enabling launching, reflection, and transmission of hyperbolic phonon polaritons (HPhPs) at the PCM domain boundaries, and tuning the wavelength of HPhPs propagating in hBN over these domains by a factor of 1.6. We show that this system supports in-plane HPhP refraction, thus providing a prototype for a class of planar refractive optics. This approach offers reconfigurable control of in-plane HPhP propagation and exemplifies a generalizable framework based on combining hyperbolic media and PCMs to design optical functionality.
This content will become publicly available on March 9, 2024
Hyperbolic phonon polaritons (HPhPs) are stimulated by coupling infrared (IR) photons with the polar lattice vibrations. Such HPhPs offer low‐loss, highly confined light propagation at subwavelength scales with out‐of‐plane or in‐plane hyperbolic wavefronts. For HPhPs, while a hyperbolic dispersion implies multiple propagating modes with a distribution of wavevectors at a given frequency, so far it has been challenging to experimentally launch and probe the higher‐order modes that offer stronger wavelength compression, especially for in‐plane HPhPs. In this work, the experimental observation of higher‐order in‐plane HPhP modes stimulated on a 3C‐SiC nanowire (NW)/α‐MoO3heterostructure is reported where leveraging both the low‐dimensionality and low‐loss nature of the polar NWs, higher‐order HPhPs modes within 2D α‐MoO3crystal are launched by the 1D 3C‐SiC NW. The launching mechanism is further studied and the requirements for efficiently launching of such higher‐order modes are determined. In addition, by altering the geometric orientation between the 3C‐SiC NW and α‐MoO3crystal, the manipulation of higher‐order HPhP dispersions as a method of tuning is demonstrated. This work illustrates an extremely anisotropic low dimensional heterostructure platform to confine and configure electromagnetic waves at the deep‐subwavelength scales for a range of IR applications including sensing, nano‐imaging, and on‐chip photonics.more » « less
- Award ID(s):
- NSF-PAR ID:
- Publisher / Repository:
- Wiley Blackwell (John Wiley & Sons)
- Date Published:
- Journal Name:
- Advanced Materials
- Medium: X
- Sponsoring Org:
- National Science Foundation
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