In this paper, general rogue wave solutions in the massive Thirring (MT) model are derived by using the Kadomtsev–Petviashvili (KP) hierarchy reduction method and these rational solutions are presented explicitly in terms of determinants whose matrix elements are elementary Schur polynomials. In the reduction process, three reduction conditions including one index‐ and two dimension‐ones are proved to be consistent by only one constraint relation on parameters of tau‐functions of the KP‐Toda hierarchy. It is found that the rogue wave solutions in the MT model depend on two background parameters, which influence their orientation and duration. Differing from many other coupled integrable systems, the MT model only admits the rogue waves of bright‐type, and the higher order rogue waves represent the superposition of fundamental ones in which the nonreducible parameters determine the arrangement patterns of fundamental rogue waves. Particularly, the super rogue wave at each order can be achieved simply by setting all internal parameters to be zero, resulting in the amplitude of the sole huge peak of order
We show that new types of rogue wave patterns exist in integrable systems, and these rogue patterns are described by root structures of Okamoto polynomial hierarchies. These rogue patterns arise when the τ functions of rogue wave solutions are determinants of Schur polynomials with index jumps of three, and an internal free parameter in these rogue waves gets large. We demonstrate these new rogue patterns in the Manakov system and the three‐wave resonant interaction system. For each system, we derive asymptotic predictions of its rogue patterns under a large internal parameter through Okamoto polynomial hierarchies. Unlike the previously reported rogue patterns associated with the Yablonskii–Vorob'ev hierarchy, a new feature in the present rogue patterns is that the mapping from the root structure of Okamoto‐hierarchy polynomials to the shape of the rogue pattern is linear only to the leading order, but becomes nonlinear to the next order. As a consequence, the current rogue patterns are often deformed, sometimes strongly deformed, from Okamoto‐hierarchy root structures, unless the underlying internal parameter is very large. Our analytical predictions of rogue patterns are compared to true solutions, and excellent agreement is observed, even when rogue patterns are strongly deformed from Okamoto‐hierarchy root structures.
more » « less Award ID(s):
 1910282
 NSFPAR ID:
 10419750
 Publisher / Repository:
 WileyBlackwell
 Date Published:
 Journal Name:
 Studies in Applied Mathematics
 Volume:
 151
 Issue:
 1
 ISSN:
 00222526
 Format(s):
 Medium: X Size: p. 60115
 Size(s):
 ["p. 60115"]
 Sponsoring Org:
 National Science Foundation
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