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Title: Investigating the Relationship between Nitrate, Total Dissolved Nitrogen, and Phosphate with Abundance of Pathogenic Vibrios and Harmful Algal Blooms in Rehoboth Bay, Delaware
ABSTRACT Vibrio spp. and phytoplankton are naturally abundant in marine environments. Recent studies have suggested that the co-occurrence of phytoplankton and the pathogenic bacterium Vibrio parahaemolyticus is due to shared ecological factors, such as nutrient requirements. We compared these communities at two locations in the Delaware Inland Bays, representing a site with high anthropogenic inputs (Torquay Canal) and a less developed area (Sloan Cove). In 2017 to 2018, using light microscopy, we were able to identify the presence of many bloom-forming algal species, such as Karlodinium veneficum , Dinophysis acuminata , Heterosigma akashiwo , and Chattonella subsalsa . Dinoflagellate biomass was higher at Torquay Canal than that at Sloan Cove. D. acuminata and Chloromorum toxicum were found only at Torquay Canal and were not observed in Sloan Cove. Most probable number real-time PCR revealed V. parahaemolyticus and Vibrio vulnificus in environmental samples. The abundance of vibrios and their virulence genes varied between sites, with a significant association between total dissolved nitrogen (TDN), PO 4 − , total dissolved phosphorus (TDP), and pathogenic markers. A generalized linear model revealed that principal component 1 of environmental factors (temperature, dissolved oxygen, salinity, TDN, PO 4 − , TDP, NO 3 :NO 2 , NO 2 − , and NH 4 + ) was the best at detecting total ( tlh+ ) V. parahaemolyticus , suggesting that they are the prime drivers for the growth and distribution of pathogenic Vibrio spp. IMPORTANCE Vibrio-associated illnesses have been expanding globally over the past several decades (A. Newton, M. Kendall, D. J. Vugia, O. L. Henao, and B. E. Mahon, Clin Infect Dis 54:S391–S395, 2012, ). Many studies have linked this expansion with an increase in global temperature (J. Martinez-Urtaza, B. C. John, J. Trinanes, and A. DePaola, Food Res Int 43:10, 2010, ; L. Vezzulli, R. R. Colwell, and C. Pruzzo, Microb Ecol 65:817–825, 2013, ; R. N. Paranjpye, W. B. Nilsson, M. Liermann, and E. D. Hilborn, FEMS Microbiol Ecol 91:fiv121, 2015, ). Temperature and salinity are the two major factors affecting the distribution of Vibrio spp. (D. Ceccarelli and R. R. Colwell, Front Microbiol 5:256, 2014, ). However, Vibrio sp. abundance can also be affected by nutrient load and marine plankton blooms (V. J. McKenzie and A. R. Townsend, EcoHealth 4:384–396, 2007; L. Vezzulli, C. Pruzzo, A. Huq, and R. R. Colwell, Environ Microbiol Rep 2:27–33, 2010, ; S. Liu, Z. Jiang, Y. Deng, Y. Wu, J. Zhang, et al. Microbiologyopen 7:e00600, 2018, ). The expansion of Vibrio spp. in marine environments calls for a deeper understanding of the biotic and abiotic factors that play a role in their abundance. We observed that pathogenic Vibrio spp. were most abundant in areas that favor the proliferation of harmful algal bloom (HAB) species. These results can inform managers, researchers, and oyster growers on factors that can influence the growth and distribution of pathogenic Vibrio spp. in the Delaware Inland Bays.  more » « less
Award ID(s):
Author(s) / Creator(s):
; ; ; ; ;
Dozois, Charles M.
Date Published:
Journal Name:
Applied and Environmental Microbiology
Medium: X
Sponsoring Org:
National Science Foundation
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  1. Bernstein, Hans C. (Ed.)
    ABSTRACT Interactions between vibrio bacteria and the planktonic community impact marine ecology and human health. Many coastal Vibrio spp. can infect humans, representing a growing threat linked to increasing seawater temperatures. Interactions with eukaryotic organisms may provide attachment substrate and critical nutrients that facilitate the persistence, diversification, and spread of pathogenic Vibrio spp. However, vibrio interactions with planktonic organisms in an environmental context are poorly understood. We quantified the pathogenic Vibrio species V. cholerae , V. parahaemolyticus , and V. vulnificus monthly for 1 year at five sites and observed high abundances, particularly during summer months, with species-specific temperature and salinity distributions. Using metabarcoding, we established a detailed profile of both prokaryotic and eukaryotic coastal microbial communities. We found that pathogenic Vibrio species were frequently associated with distinct eukaryotic amplicon sequence variants (ASVs), including diatoms and copepods. Shared environmental conditions, such as high temperatures and low salinities, were associated with both high concentrations of pathogenic vibrios and potential environmental reservoirs, which may influence vibrio infection risks linked to climate change and should be incorporated into predictive ecological models and experimental laboratory systems. IMPORTANCE Many species of coastal vibrio bacteria can infect humans, representing a growing health threat linked to increasing seawater temperatures. However, their interactions with surrounding microbes in the environment, especially eukaryotic organisms that may provide nutrients and attachment substrate, are poorly understood. We quantified three pathogenic Vibrio species monthly for a duration of 1 year, finding that all three species were abundant and exhibited species-specific temperature and salinity distributions. Using metabarcoding, we investigated associations between these pathogenic species and prokaryotic and eukaryotic microbes, revealing genus and amplicon sequence variant (ASV)-specific relationships with potential functional implications. For example, pathogenic species were frequently associated with chitin-producing eukaryotes, such as diatoms in the genus Thalassiosira and copepods. These associations between high concentrations of pathogenic vibrios and potential environmental reservoirs should be considered when predicting infection risk and developing ecologically relevant model systems. 
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  2. Dudley, Edward G. (Ed.)
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  3. PLEASE CONTACT AUTHORS IF YOU CONTRIBUTE AND WOULD LIKE TO BE LISTED AS A CO-AUTHOR. (this message will be removed some time weeks/months after the first publication)

    Terrestrial Parasite Tracker indexed biotic interactions and review summary.

    The Terrestrial Parasite Tracker (TPT) project began in 2019 and is funded by the National Science foundation to mobilize data from vector and ectoparasite collections to data aggregators (e.g., iDigBio, GBIF) to help build a comprehensive picture of arthropod host-association evolution, distributions, and the ecological interactions of disease vectors which will assist scientists, educators, land managers, and policy makers. Arthropod parasites often are important to human and wildlife health and safety as vectors of pathogens, and it is critical to digitize these specimens so that they, and their biotic interaction data, will be available to help understand and predict the spread of human and wildlife disease.

    This data publication contains versioned TPT associated datasets and related data products that were tracked, reviewed and indexed by Global Biotic Interactions (GloBI) and associated tools. GloBI provides open access to finding species interaction data (e.g., predator-prey, pollinator-plant, pathogen-host, parasite-host) by combining existing open datasets using open source software.

    If you have questions or comments about this publication, please open an issue at or contact the authors by email.

    The creation of this archive was made possible by the National Science Foundation award "Collaborative Research: Digitization TCN: Digitizing collections to trace parasite-host associations and predict the spread of vector-borne disease," Award numbers DBI:1901932 and DBI:1901926

    Jorrit H. Poelen, James D. Simons and Chris J. Mungall. (2014). Global Biotic Interactions: An open infrastructure to share and analyze species-interaction datasets. Ecological Informatics.

    GloBI Data Review Report

    Datasets under review:
     - University of Michigan Museum of Zoology Insect Division. Full Database Export 2020-11-20 provided by Erika Tucker and Barry Oconner. accessed via on 2022-06-24T14:02:48.801Z
     - Academy of Natural Sciences Entomology Collection for the Parasite Tracker Project accessed via on 2022-06-24T14:04:22.091Z
     - Bernice Pauahi Bishop Museum, J. Linsley Gressitt Center for Research in Entomology accessed via on 2022-06-24T14:04:37.692Z
     - Texas A&M University, Biodiversity Teaching and Research Collections accessed via on 2022-06-24T14:06:40.154Z
     - Brigham Young University Arthropod Museum accessed via on 2022-06-24T14:06:51.420Z
     - California Academy of Sciences Entomology accessed via on 2022-06-24T14:07:16.371Z
     - Clemson University Arthropod Collection accessed via on 2022-06-24T14:07:40.925Z
     - Denver Museum of Nature and Science (DMNS) Parasite specimens (DMNS:Para) accessed via on 2022-06-24T14:08:00.730Z
     - Field Museum of Natural History IPT accessed via on 2022-06-24T14:18:51.995Z
     - Illinois Natural History Survey Insect Collection accessed via on 2022-06-24T14:19:37.563Z
     - UMSP / University of Minnesota / University of Minnesota Insect Collection accessed via on 2022-06-24T14:20:27.232Z
     - Milwaukee Public Museum Biological Collections Data Portal accessed via on 2022-06-24T14:20:46.185Z
     - Museum for Southern Biology (MSB) Parasite Collection accessed via on 2022-06-24T15:16:07.223Z
     - The Albert J. Cook Arthropod Research Collection accessed via on 2022-06-24T16:09:40.702Z
     - Ohio State University Acarology Laboratory accessed via on 2022-06-24T16:10:00.281Z
     - Frost Entomological Museum, Pennsylvania State University accessed via on 2022-06-24T16:10:07.741Z
     - Purdue Entomological Research Collection accessed via on 2022-06-24T16:10:26.654Z
     - Texas A&M University Insect Collection accessed via on 2022-06-24T16:10:58.496Z
     - University of California Santa Barbara Invertebrate Zoology Collection accessed via on 2022-06-24T16:12:29.854Z
     - University of Hawaii Insect Museum accessed via on 2022-06-24T16:12:41.408Z
     - University of New Hampshire Collection of Insects and other Arthropods UNHC-UNHC accessed via on 2022-06-24T16:12:59.500Z
     - Scott L. Gardner and Gabor R. Racz (2021). University of Nebraska State Museum - Parasitology. Harold W. Manter Laboratory of Parasitology. University of Nebraska State Museum. accessed via on 2022-06-24T16:13:06.914Z
     - Data were obtained from specimens belonging to the United States National Museum of Natural History (USNM), Smithsonian Institution, Washington DC and digitized by the Walter Reed Biosystematics Unit (WRBU). accessed via on 2022-06-24T16:13:38.013Z
     - US National Museum of Natural History Ixodes Records accessed via on 2022-06-24T16:13:45.666Z
     - Price Institute of Parasite Research, School of Biological Sciences, University of Utah accessed via on 2022-06-24T16:13:54.724Z
     - University of Wisconsin Stevens Point, Stephen J. Taft Parasitological Collection accessed via on 2022-06-24T16:14:04.745Z
     - Giraldo-Calderón, G. I., Emrich, S. J., MacCallum, R. M., Maslen, G., Dialynas, E., Topalis, P., … Lawson, D. (2015). VectorBase: an updated bioinformatics resource for invertebrate vectors and other organisms related with human diseases. Nucleic acids research, 43(Database issue), D707–D713. doi:10.1093/nar/gku1117. accessed via on 2022-06-24T16:14:11.965Z
     - WIRC / University of Wisconsin Madison WIS-IH / Wisconsin Insect Research Collection accessed via on 2022-06-24T16:14:29.743Z
     - Yale University Peabody Museum Collections Data Portal accessed via on 2022-06-24T16:23:29.289Z

    Generated on:

    GloBI's Elton 0.12.4 

    Note that all files ending with .tsv are files formatted 
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    Included in this review archive are:

      This file.

      Summary across all reviewed collections of total number of distinct review comments.

      Summary by reviewed collection of total number of distinct review comments.

      Summary of number of indexed interaction records by institutionCode and collectionCode.

      All review comments by collection.

      All indexed interactions for all reviewed collections.

      All indexed interactions for all reviewed collections selecting only sourceInstitutionCode, sourceCollectionCode, sourceCatalogNumber, sourceTaxonName, interactionTypeName and targetTaxonName.

      Details on the datasets under review.

      Program used to update datasets and generate the review reports and associated indexed interactions.
      Source datasets used by elton.jar in process of executing the script.
      Program used to generate the report

      Log file generated as part of running the script

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