Oenothera sect. Calylophus is a North American group of 13 recognized taxa in the evening primrose family (Onagraceae) with an evolutionary history that may include independent origins of bee pollination, edaphic endemism, and permanent translocation heterozygosity. Like other groups that radiated relatively recently and rapidly, taxon boundaries within Oenothera sect. Calylophus have remained challenging to circumscribe. In this study, we used target enrichment, flanking noncoding regions, gene tree/species tree methods, tests for gene flow modified for target-enrichment data, and morphometric analysis to reconstruct phylogenetic hypotheses, evaluate current taxon circumscriptions, and examine character evolution in Oenothera sect. Calylophus. Because sect. Calylophus comprises a clade with a relatively restricted geographic range, we were able to extensively sample across the range of geographic, edaphic, and morphological diversity in the group. We found that the combination of exons and flanking noncoding regions led to improved support for species relationships. We reconstructed potential hybrid origins of some accessions and note that if processes such as hybridization are not taken into account, the number of inferred evolutionary transitions may be artificially inflated. We recovered strong evidence for multiple evolutionary origins of bee pollination from ancestral hawkmoth pollination, edaphic specialization on gypsum, and permanent translocation heterozygosity. This study applies newly emerging techniques alongside dense infraspecific sampling and morphological analyses to effectively reconstruct the recalcitrant history of a rapid radiation. [Gypsum endemism; Oenothera sect. Calylophus; Onagraceae; phylogenomics; pollinator shift; recent radiation; target enrichment.]more » « less
- Award ID(s):
- NSF-PAR ID:
- Publisher / Repository:
- Oxford University Press
- Date Published:
- Journal Name:
- Systematic Biology
- Page Range / eLocation ID:
- p. 249-263
- Medium: X
- Sponsoring Org:
- National Science Foundation
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Charleston, Michael (Ed.)Abstract We present a 517-gene phylogenetic framework for the breadfruit genus Artocarpus (ca. 70 spp., Moraceae), making use of silica-dried leaves from recent fieldwork and herbarium specimens (some up to 106 years old) to achieve 96% taxon sampling. We explore issues relating to assembly, paralogous loci, partitions, and analysis method to reconstruct a phylogeny that is robust to variation in data and available tools. Although codon partitioning did not result in any substantial topological differences, the inclusion of flanking noncoding sequence in analyses significantly increased the resolution of gene trees. We also found that increasing the size of data sets increased convergence between analysis methods but did not reduce gene-tree conflict. We optimized the HybPiper targeted-enrichment sequence assembly pipeline for short sequences derived from degraded DNA extracted from museum specimens. Although the subgenera of Artocarpus were monophyletic, revision is required at finer scales, particularly with respect to widespread species. We expect our results to provide a basis for further studies in Artocarpus and provide guidelines for future analyses of data sets based on target enrichment data, particularly those using sequences from both fresh and museum material, counseling careful attention to the potential of off-target sequences to improve resolution. [Artocarpus; Moraceae; noncoding sequences; phylogenomics; target enrichment.]more » « less
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In the California wildflower genus,
Clarkia(Onagraceae), we sampled seeds from 58 populations representing three pairs of sister taxa; each pair included a predominantly outcrossing and a facultatively selfing taxon. We then examined the independent effects on population mean seed size of mating system, elevation, long‐term (30‐year) climate conditions, and climate anomalies (the deviation between conditions in the year of collection and the long‐term mean), focusing on maximum monthly temperature ( Tmax), cumulative moisture deficit and cumulative precipitation (PPT) during Clarkia'sgrowing season (fall, winter and spring).
In each taxon pair, the selfing taxon had smaller seeds than the outcrosser. Local, long‐term (1921–1980 and 1981–2000) mean
Tmax, PPT and elevation were independently and negatively associated with seed size. Long‐term means for Tmaxand PPT explain geographical variation in seed size better than climate anomalies in the year of collection. Synthesis. We corroborated two key hypotheses concerning the drivers of geographical variation in mean seed size. Small seeds in Clarkiaco‐evolve with selfing (although the mechanism remains elusive) and in response to chronically warm and wet conditions. The effect of long‐term mean precipitation on seed size differs qualitatively from the effect of precipitation anomalies; relatively large seeds are produced in populations experiencing wetter‐than‐normal years. Ongoing climate change may therefore generate conflicting selection on seed size in Clarkia: intensifying drought is likely to lead to an evolutionary increase in seed size due to its effects on seedling survivorship, while climate‐driven declines in pollinators or selection favouring more rapid reproduction may promote the evolution of self‐pollination, facilitating the evolution of smaller seeds.
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Buerkle, Alex (Ed.)Inferences about past processes of adaptation and speciation require a gene-scale and genome-wide understanding of the evolutionary history of diverging taxa. In this study, we use genome-wide capture of nuclear gene sequences, plus skimming of organellar sequences, to investigate the phylogenomics of monkeyflowers in Mimulus section Erythranthe (27 accessions from seven species ) . Taxa within Erythranthe , particularly the parapatric and putatively sister species M . lewisii (bee-pollinated) and M . cardinalis (hummingbird-pollinated), have been a model system for investigating the ecological genetics of speciation and adaptation for over five decades. Across >8000 nuclear loci, multiple methods resolve a predominant species tree in which M . cardinalis groups with other hummingbird-pollinated taxa (37% of gene trees), rather than being sister to M . lewisii (32% of gene trees). We independently corroborate a single evolution of hummingbird pollination syndrome in Erythranthe by demonstrating functional redundancy in genetic complementation tests of floral traits in hybrids; together, these analyses overturn a textbook case of pollination-syndrome convergence. Strong asymmetries in allele sharing (Patterson’s D-statistic and related tests) indicate that gene tree discordance reflects ancient and recent introgression rather than incomplete lineage sorting. Consistent with abundant introgression blurring the history of divergence, low-recombination and adaptation-associated regions support the new species tree, while high-recombination regions generate phylogenetic evidence for sister status for M . lewisii and M . cardinalis . Population-level sampling of core taxa also revealed two instances of chloroplast capture, with Sierran M . lewisii and Southern Californian M . parishii each carrying organelle genomes nested within respective sympatric M . cardinalis clades. A recent organellar transfer from M . cardinalis , an outcrosser where selfish cytonuclear dynamics are more likely, may account for the unexpected cytoplasmic male sterility effects of selfer M . parishii organelles in hybrids with M . lewisii . Overall, our phylogenomic results reveal extensive reticulation throughout the evolutionary history of a classic monkeyflower radiation, suggesting that natural selection (re-)assembles and maintains species-diagnostic traits and barriers in the face of gene flow. Our findings further underline the challenges, even in reproductively isolated species, in distinguishing re-use of adaptive alleles from true convergence and emphasize the value of a phylogenomic framework for reconstructing the evolutionary genetics of adaptation and speciation.more » « less
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Field expeditions in 70 páramos of Colombia and Venezuela resulted in 555 collected samples from 110 species. Additional material was obtained from herbarium specimens. Sequence data included nrDNA (ITS and ETS) and cpDNA (rpl16), for an aligned total of 2,954 bp. Fragment analysis was performed with AFLP data using 28 primer combinations and yielding 1,665 fragments. Phylogenies based on sequence data were reconstructed under maximum parsimony, maximum likelihood and Bayesian inference. The AFLP dataset employed minimum evolution analyses. A Monte Carlo permutation test was used to infer the influence of the geography on the phylogeny.
Phylogenies reconstructed suggest that most genera are paraphyletic, but the phylogenetic signal may be misled by hybridization and incomplete lineage sorting. A tree with all the available molecular data shows two large clades: one of primarily Venezuelan species that includes a few neighboring Colombian species; and a second clade of only Colombian species. Results from the Monte Carlo permutation test suggests a very strong influence of the geography on the phylogenetic relationships. Venezuelan páramos tend to hold taxa that are more distantly-related to each other than Colombian páramos, where taxa are more closely-related to each other.
Our data suggest the presence of two independent radiations: one in Venezuela and the other in Colombia. In addition, the current generic classification will need to be deeply revised. Analyses show a strong geographic structure in the phylogeny, with large clades grouped in hotspots of diversity at a regional scale, and in páramo localities at a local scale. Differences in the degrees of relatedness between sympatric species of Venezuelan and Colombian páramos may be explained because of the younger age of the latter páramos, and the lesser time for speciation of Espeletiinae in them.