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Title: Paralogs and Off-Target Sequences Improve Phylogenetic Resolution in a Densely Sampled Study of the Breadfruit Genus ( Artocarpus , Moraceae)
Abstract We present a 517-gene phylogenetic framework for the breadfruit genus Artocarpus (ca. 70 spp., Moraceae), making use of silica-dried leaves from recent fieldwork and herbarium specimens (some up to 106 years old) to achieve 96% taxon sampling. We explore issues relating to assembly, paralogous loci, partitions, and analysis method to reconstruct a phylogeny that is robust to variation in data and available tools. Although codon partitioning did not result in any substantial topological differences, the inclusion of flanking noncoding sequence in analyses significantly increased the resolution of gene trees. We also found that increasing the size of data sets increased convergence between analysis methods but did not reduce gene-tree conflict. We optimized the HybPiper targeted-enrichment sequence assembly pipeline for short sequences derived from degraded DNA extracted from museum specimens. Although the subgenera of Artocarpus were monophyletic, revision is required at finer scales, particularly with respect to widespread species. We expect our results to provide a basis for further studies in Artocarpus and provide guidelines for future analyses of data sets based on target enrichment data, particularly those using sequences from both fresh and museum material, counseling careful attention to the potential of off-target sequences to improve resolution. [Artocarpus; Moraceae; more » noncoding sequences; phylogenomics; target enrichment.] « less
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Charleston, Michael
Award ID(s):
1711391 1501373
Publication Date:
Journal Name:
Systematic Biology
Sponsoring Org:
National Science Foundation
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  1. Over the past decade, museum genomics studies have focused on obtaining DNA of sufficient quality and quantity for sequencing from fluid-preserved natural history specimens, primarily to be used in systematic studies. While these studies have opened windows to evolutionary and biodiversity knowledge of many species worldwide, published works often focus on the success of these DNA sequencing efforts, which is undoubtedly less common than obtaining minimal or sometimes no DNA or unusable sequence data from specimens in natural history collections. Here, we attempt to obtain and sequence DNA extracts from 115 fresh and 41 degraded samples of homalopsid snakes, as well as from two degraded samples of a poorly known snake, Hydrablabes periops . Hydrablabes has been suggested to belong to at least two different families (Natricidae and Homalopsidae) and with no fresh tissues known to be available, intractable museum specimens currently provide the only opportunity to determine this snake’s taxonomic affinity. Although our aim was to generate a target-capture dataset for these samples, to be included in a broader phylogenetic study, results were less than ideal due to large amounts of missing data, especially using the same downstream methods as with standard, high-quality samples. However, rather than discount resultsmore »entirely, we used mapping methods with references and pseudoreferences, along with phylogenetic analyses, to maximize any usable molecular data from our sequencing efforts, identify the taxonomic affinity of H. periops , and compare sequencing success between fresh and degraded tissue samples. This resulted in largely complete mitochondrial genomes for five specimens and hundreds to thousands of nuclear loci (ultra-conserved loci, anchored-hybrid enrichment loci, and a variety of loci frequently used in squamate phylogenetic studies) from fluid-preserved snakes, including a specimen of H. periops from the Field Museum of Natural History collection. We combined our H. periops data with previously published genomic and Sanger-sequenced datasets to confirm the familial designation of this taxon, reject previous taxonomic hypotheses, and make biogeographic inferences for Hydrablabes . A second H. periops specimen, despite being seemingly similar for initial raw sequencing results and after being put through the same protocols, resulted in little usable molecular data. We discuss the successes and failures of using different pipelines and methods to maximize the products from these data and provide expectations for others who are looking to use DNA sequencing efforts on specimens that likely have degraded DNA. Life Science Identifier ( Hydrablabes periops ) :pub:F2AA44 E2-D2EF-4747-972A-652C34C2C09D.« less
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This resource affords a genome-scale assessment of all human repetitive sequences, including TEs and previously unknown repeats and satellites, both within and outside of gaps and collapsed regions. Additionally, a complete genome enables the opportunity to explore the epigenetic and transcriptional profiles of these elements that are fundamental to our understanding of chromosome structure, function, and evolution. Comparative analyses reveal modes of repeat divergence, evolution, and expansion or contraction with locus-level resolution. RESULTS We implementedmore »a comprehensive repeat annotation workflow using previously known human repeats and de novo repeat modeling followed by manual curation, including assessing overlaps with gene annotations, segmental duplications, tandem repeats, and annotated repeats. Using this method, we developed an updated catalog of human repetitive sequences and refined previous repeat annotations. 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  4. Abstract

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