We mimic a flapping wing through a fluid–structure interaction (FSI) framework based upon a generalized lumpedtorsional flexibility model. The developed fluid and structural solvers together determine the aerodynamic forces, wing deformation and selfpropelled motion. A phenomenological solution to the linear singlespring structural dynamics equation is established to help offer insight and validate the computations under the limit of small deformation. The cruising velocity and power requirements are evaluated by varying the flapping Reynolds number ( $20\leqslant Re_{f}\leqslant 100$ ), stiffness (represented by frequency ratio, $1\lesssim \unicode[STIX]{x1D714}^{\ast }\leqslant 10$ ) and the ratio of aerodynamic to structural inertia forces (represented by a dimensionless parameter $\unicode[STIX]{x1D713}$ ( $0.1\leqslant \unicode[STIX]{x1D713}\leqslant 3$ )). For structural inertia dominated flows ( $\unicode[STIX]{x1D713}\ll 1$ ), pitching and plunging are shown to always remain in phase ( $\unicode[STIX]{x1D719}\approx 0$ ) with the maximum wing deformation occurring at the end of the stroke. When aerodynamics dominates ( $\unicode[STIX]{x1D713}>1$ ), a large phase difference is induced ( $\unicode[STIX]{x1D719}\approx \unicode[STIX]{x03C0}/2$ ) and the maximum deformation occurs at midstroke. Lattice Boltzmann simulations show that there is an optimal $\unicode[STIX]{x1D714}^{\ast }$ at which cruising velocity is maximized and the location of optimum shifts away from unit frequency ratio ( $\unicode[STIX]{x1D714}^{\ast }=1$ ) as $\unicode[STIX]{x1D713}$ increases. Furthermore, aerodynamics administered deformations exhibit better performance than those governed by structural inertia, quantified in terms of distance travelled per unit work input. Closer examination reveals that although maximum thrust transpires at unit frequency ratio, it is not transformed into the highest cruising velocity. Rather, the maximum velocity occurs at the condition when the relative tip displacement ${\approx}\,0.3$ .
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Interfaceresolved simulations of particle suspensions in Newtonian, shear thinning and shear thickening carrier fluids
We present a numerical study of noncolloidal spherical and rigid particles suspended in Newtonian, shear thinning and shear thickening fluids employing an immersed boundary method. We consider a linear Couette configuration to explore a wide range of solid volume fractions ( $0.1\leqslant \unicode[STIX]{x1D6F7}\leqslant 0.4$ ) and particle Reynolds numbers ( $0.1\leqslant Re_{p}\leqslant 10$ ). We report the distribution of solid and fluid phase velocity and solid volume fraction and show that close to the boundaries inertial effects result in a significant slip velocity between the solid and fluid phase. The local solid volume fraction profiles indicate particle layering close to the walls, which increases with the nominal $\unicode[STIX]{x1D6F7}$ . This feature is associated with the confinement effects. We calculate the probability density function of local strain rates and compare the latter’s mean value with the values estimated from the homogenisation theory of Chateau et al. ( J. Rheol. , vol. 52, 2008, pp. 489–506), indicating a reasonable agreement in the Stokesian regime. Both the mean value and standard deviation of the local strain rates increase primarily with the solid volume fraction and secondarily with the $Re_{p}$ . The wide spectrum of the local shear rate and its dependency on $\unicode[STIX]{x1D6F7}$ and $Re_{p}$ point to the deficiencies of the mean value of the local shear rates in estimating the rheology of these noncolloidal complex suspensions. Finally, we show that in the presence of inertia, the effective viscosity of these noncolloidal suspensions deviates from that of Stokesian suspensions. We discuss how inertia affects the microstructure and provide a scaling argument to give a closure for the suspension shear stress for both Newtonian and powerlaw suspending fluids. The stress closure is valid for moderate particle Reynolds numbers, $O(Re_{p})\sim 10$ .
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 Award ID(s):
 1554044
 NSFPAR ID:
 10427380
 Date Published:
 Journal Name:
 Journal of Fluid Mechanics
 Volume:
 852
 ISSN:
 00221120
 Page Range / eLocation ID:
 329 to 357
 Format(s):
 Medium: X
 Sponsoring Org:
 National Science Foundation
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