skip to main content

Title: Turbulent channel flow of an elastoviscoplastic fluid
We present numerical simulations of laminar and turbulent channel flow of an elastoviscoplastic fluid. The non-Newtonian flow is simulated by solving the full incompressible Navier–Stokes equations coupled with the evolution equation for the elastoviscoplastic stress tensor. The laminar simulations are carried out for a wide range of Reynolds numbers, Bingham numbers and ratios of the fluid and total viscosity, while the turbulent flow simulations are performed at a fixed bulk Reynolds number equal to 2800 and weak elasticity. We show that in the laminar flow regime the friction factor increases monotonically with the Bingham number (yield stress) and decreases with the viscosity ratio, while in the turbulent regime the friction factor is almost independent of the viscosity ratio and decreases with the Bingham number, until the flow eventually returns to a fully laminar condition for large enough yield stresses. Three main regimes are found in the turbulent case, depending on the Bingham number: for low values, the friction Reynolds number and the turbulent flow statistics only slightly differ from those of a Newtonian fluid; for intermediate values of the Bingham number, the fluctuations increase and the inertial equilibrium range is lost. Finally, for higher values the flow completely laminarizes. These different behaviours are associated with a progressive increases of the volume where the fluid is not yielded, growing from the centreline towards the walls as the Bingham number increases. The unyielded region interacts with the near-wall structures, forming preferentially above the high-speed streaks. In particular, the near-wall streaks and the associated quasi-streamwise vortices are strongly enhanced in an highly elastoviscoplastic fluid and the flow becomes more correlated in the streamwise direction.  more » « less
Award ID(s):
Author(s) / Creator(s):
; ; ; ;
Date Published:
Journal Name:
Journal of Fluid Mechanics
Page Range / eLocation ID:
488 to 514
Medium: X
Sponsoring Org:
National Science Foundation
More Like this
  1. null (Ed.)
    Recent direct numerical simulations (DNS) and experiments in turbulent channel flow have found intermittent low- and high-drag events in Newtonian fluid flows, at Reτ=uτh/ν between 70 and 100, where uτ, h and ν are the friction velocity, channel half-height and kinematic viscosity, respectively. These intervals of low-drag and high-drag have been termed “hibernating” and “hyperactive”, respectively, and in this paper, a further investigation of these intermittent events is conducted using experimental and numerical techniques. For experiments, simultaneous measurements of wall shear stress and velocity are carried out in a channel flow facility using hot-film anemometry (HFA) and laser Doppler velocimetry (LDV), respectively, for Reτ between 70 and 250. For numerical simulations, DNS of a channel flow is performed in an extended domain at Reτ = 70 and 85. These intermittent events are selected by carrying out conditional sampling of the wall shear stress data based on a combined threshold magnitude and time-duration criteria. The use of three different scalings (so-called outer, inner and mixed) for the time-duration criterion for the conditional events is explored. It is found that if the time-duration criterion is kept constant in inner units, the frequency of occurrence of these conditional events remain insensitive to Reynolds number. There exists an exponential distribution of frequency of occurrence of the conditional events with respect to their duration, implying a potentially memoryless process. An explanation for the presence of a spike (or dip) in the ensemble-averaged wall shear stress data before and after the low-drag (or high-drag) events is investigated. During the low-drag events, the conditionally-averaged streamwise velocities get closer to Virk’s maximum drag reduction (MDR) asymptote, near the wall, for all Reynolds numbers studied. Reynolds shear stress (RSS) characteristics during these conditional events are investigated for Reτ = 70 and 85. Except very close to the wall, the conditionally-averaged RSS is higher than the time-averaged value during the low-drag events. 
    more » « less
  2. Direct numerical simulations (DNS) are performed to investigate the spatial evolution of flat-plate zero-pressure-gradient turbulent boundary layers over long streamwise domains ( ${>}300\delta _i$ , with $\delta _i$ the inflow boundary-layer thickness) at three different Mach numbers, $2.5$ , $4.9$ and $10.9$ , with the surface temperatures ranging from quasiadiabatic to highly cooled conditions. The settlement of turbulence statistics into a fully developed equilibrium state of the turbulent boundary layer has been carefully monitored, either based on the satisfaction of the von Kármán integral equation or by comparing runs with different inflow turbulence generation techniques. The generated DNS database is used to characterize the streamwise evolution of multiple important variables in the high-Mach-number, cold-wall regime, including the skin friction, the Reynolds analogy factor, the shape factor, the Reynolds stresses, and the fluctuating wall quantities. The data confirm the validity of many classic and newer compressibility transformations at moderately high Reynolds numbers (up to friction Reynolds number $Re_\tau \approx 1200$ ) and show that, with proper scaling, the sizes of the near-wall streaks and superstructures are insensitive to the Mach number and wall cooling conditions. The strong wall cooling in the hypersonic cold-wall case is found to cause a significant increase in the size of the near-wall turbulence eddies (relative to the boundary-layer thickness), which leads to a reduced-scale separation between the large and small turbulence scales, and in turn to a lack of an outer peak in the spanwise spectra of the streamwise velocity in the logarithmic region. 
    more » « less
  3. Direct Numerical Simulation (DNS) of turbulent spatially-developing boundary layers is performed over an isothermal flat plate at several flow regimes: incompressible, supersonic (Mach 2.5), and hypersonic (Mach 5). Similar low Reynolds numbers are considered in all cases with the purpose of assessing flow compressibility on low/high order flow statistics and on the dynamics of coherent structures of Zero Pressure Gradient (ZPG) flows. Turbulent inflow information is generated by following the concept of the rescaling-recycling approach introduced by Lund et al. (J. Comp. Phys. 140, 233-258, 1998); although, the proposed methodology is extended to high-speed flows. Furthermore, a dynamic approach is employed to connect the friction velocities at the inlet and recycle stations (i.e., there is no need of an empirical correlation as in Lund et al.). The Mach number effect has been mainly identified as significant changes in peak values of the streamwise velocity fluctuations. The vertical transport of Reynolds shear stresses is slightly away from the wall in the near wall region for the hypersonic case. Zones of low speed fluid exhibits a much more elongated shape in incompressible flow as compared with the compressible counterpart. Furthermore, low speed streaks exhibit a contorted, twisted and stretched form in incompressible flow while they are shorter and more isotropic in the supersonic flow. 
    more » « less
  4. The transition from laminar to turbulent flow is of great interest since it is one of the most difficult and unsolved problems in fluids engineering. The transition processes are significantly important because the transition has a huge impact on almost all systems that come in contact with a fluid flow by altering the mixing, transport, and drag properties of fluids even in simple pipe and channel flows. Generally, in most transportation systems, the transition to turbulence causes a significant increase in drag force, energy consumption, and, therefore, operating cost. Thus, understanding the underlying mechanisms of the laminar-to-turbulent transition can be a major benefit in many ways, especially economically. There have been substantial previous studies that focused on testing the stability of laminar flow and finding the critical amplitudes of disturbances necessary to trigger the transition in various wall-bounded systems, including circular pipes and square ducts. However, there is still no fundamental theory of transition to predict the onset of turbulence. In this study, we perform direct numerical simulations (DNS) of the transition flows from laminar to turbulence in a channel flow. Specifically, the effects of different magnitudes of perturbations on the onset of turbulence are investigated. The perturbation magnitudes vary from 0.001 (0.1%) to 0.05 (5%) of a typical turbulent velocity field, and the Reynolds number is from 5,000 to 40,000. Most importantly, the transition behavior in this study was found to be in good agreement with other reported studies performed for fluid flow in pipes and ducts. With the DNS results, a finite amplitude stability curve was obtained. The critical magnitude of perturbation required to cause transition was observed to be inversely proportional to the Reynolds number for the magnitude from 0.01 to 0.05. We also investigated the temporal behavior of the transition process, and it was found that the transition time or the time required to begin the transition process is inversely correlated with the Reynolds number only for the magnitude from 0.02 to 0.05, while different temporal behavior occurs for smaller perturbation magnitudes. In addition to the transition time, the transition dynamics were investigated by observing the time series of wall shear stress. At the onset of transition, the shear stress experiences an overshoot, then decreases toward sustained turbulence. As expected, the average values of the wall shear stress in turbulent flow increase with the Reynolds number. The change in the wall shear stress from laminar to overshoot was, of course, found to increase with the Reynolds number. More interestingly was the observed change in wall shear stress from the overshoot to turbulence. The change in magnitude appears to be almost insensitive to the Reynolds number and the perturbation magnitude. Because the change in wall shear stress is directly proportional to the pumping power, these observations could be extremely useful when determining the required pumping power in certain flow conditions. Furthermore, the stability curve and wall shear stress changes can be considered robust features for future applications, and ultimately interpreted as evidence of progress toward solving the unresolved fluids engineering problem. 
    more » « less
  5. Reducing wall drag in turbulent pipe and channel flows is an issue of great practical importance. In engineering applications, end-functionalized polymer chains are often employed as agents to reduce drag. These are polymers which are floating in the solvent and attach (either by adsorption or through irreversible chemical binding) at one of their chain ends to the substrate (wall). We propose a PDE model to study this setup in the simple setting where the solvent is a viscous incompressible Navier–Stokes fluid occupying the bulk of a smooth domain Ω⊂ℝ𝑑, and the wall-grafted polymer is in the so-called mushroom regime (inter-polymer spacing on the order of the typical polymer length). The microscopic description of the polymer enters into the macroscopic description of the fluid motion through a dynamical boundary condition on the wall-tangential stress of the fluid, something akin to (but distinct from) a history-dependent slip-length. We establish the global well-posedness of strong solutions in two-spatial dimensions and prove that the inviscid limit to the strong Euler solution holds with a rate. Moreover, the wall-friction factor ⟨𝑓⟩ and the global energy dissipation ⟨𝜀⟩ vanish inversely proportional to the Reynolds number 𝐑𝐞. This scaling corresponds to Poiseuille’s law for the friction factor ⟨𝑓⟩∼1/𝐑𝐞 for laminar flow and thereby quantifies drag reduction in our setting. These results are in stark contrast to those available for physical boundaries without polymer additives modeled by, for example, no-slip conditions, where no such results are generally known even in two-dimensions. 
    more » « less