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Title: Identification, biology, and management of conifer sawflies (Hymenoptera: Diprioninae) in eastern North America

Pine sawflies (Hymenoptera: Diprionidae) are eruptive herbivores found throughout eastern North America. The Diprionidae family, which contains at least 140 species, constitutes the most persistent threat to conifers as population outbreaks can cause widespread defoliation. Because some species are more prone to large, destructive outbreaks than others, species identification is critical to effective management. Although existing taxonomic keys are primarily based on internal adult morphology, substantial variation among species in larval color traits, geographic location, overwintering strategy, host plant, and egg patterns can be diagnostic at the species level. Here, we focus on the Pinaceae-feeding subfamily Diprioninae, of which there are 25 species in eastern North America. We describe the general biology, life cycle, and host-use ecology of Diprioninae, with an emphasis on the variation among these traits within this subfamily. In addition, we provide tools for species identification, including a taxonomic key that utilizes external diagnostic characteristics. Finally, we discuss available management strategies.

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Author(s) / Creator(s):
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Publisher / Repository:
Oxford University Press
Date Published:
Journal Name:
Journal of Integrated Pest Management
Medium: X
Sponsoring Org:
National Science Foundation
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