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Title: Measurement of the collision rate coefficients between atmospheric ions and multiply charged aerosol particles in the CERN CLOUD chamber
Abstract. Aerosol particles have an important role in Earth'sradiation balance and climate, both directly and indirectly throughaerosol–cloud interactions. Most aerosol particles in the atmosphere areweakly charged, affecting both their collision rates with ions and neutralmolecules, as well as the rates by which they are scavenged by other aerosolparticles and cloud droplets. The rate coefficients between ions and aerosolparticles are important since they determine the growth rates and lifetimesof ions and charged aerosol particles, and so they may influence cloudmicrophysics, dynamics, and aerosol processing. However, despite theirimportance, very few experimental measurements exist of charged aerosolcollision rates under atmospheric conditions, where galactic cosmic rays inthe lower troposphere give rise to ion pair concentrations of around 1000 cm−3. Here we present measurements in the CERN CLOUD chamber of therate coefficients between ions and small (<10 nm) aerosol particlescontaining up to 9 elementary charges, e. We find the rate coefficient of asingly charged ion with an oppositely charged particle increases from 2.0(0.4–4.4) × 10−6 cm3 s−1 to 30.6 (24.9–45.1) × 10−6 cm3 s−1 for particles with charges of 1 to9 e, respectively, where the parentheses indicate the ±1σuncertainty interval. Our measurements are compatible with theoreticalpredictions and show excellent agreement with the model ofGatti and Kortshagen (2008).  more » « less
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Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics
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6703 to 6718
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Sponsoring Org:
National Science Foundation
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Fig. 3(b) shows the tunneling probability T according to the Kane two-band model in the three materials, In0.53Ga0.47As, GaAs, and GaN, following our observation of a similar electroluminescence mechanism in GaN/AlN RTDs (due to strong polarization field of wurtzite structures) [8]. The expression is Tinter = (2/9)∙exp[(-2 ∙Ug 2 ∙me)/(2h∙P∙E)], where Ug is the bandgap energy, P is the valence-to-conduction-band momentum matrix element, and E is the electric field. Values for the highest calculated internal E fields for the InGaAs and GaN are also shown, indicating that Tinter in those structures approaches values of ~10-5. As shown, a GaAs RTD would require an internal field of ~6×105 V/cm, which is rarely realized in standard GaAs RTDs, perhaps explaining why there have been few if any reports of room-temperature electroluminescence in the GaAs devices. [1] E.R. Brown,et al., Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 58, 2291, 1991. [5] S. Sze, Physics of Semiconductor Devices, 2nd Ed. 12.2.1 (Wiley, 1981). [2] M. Feiginov et al., Appl. Phys. Lett., 99, 233506, 2011. [6] L. Coldren, Diode Lasers and Photonic Integrated Circuits, (Wiley, 1995). [3] Y. Nishida et al., Nature Sci. Reports, 9, 18125, 2019. [7] E.O. Kane, J. of Appl. Phy 32, 83 (1961). [4] P. Fakhimi, et al., 2019 DRC Conference Digest. [8] T. Growden, et al., Nature Light: Science & Applications 7, 17150 (2018). [5] S. Sze, Physics of Semiconductor Devices, 2nd Ed. 12.2.1 (Wiley, 1981). [6] L. Coldren, Diode Lasers and Photonic Integrated Circuits, (Wiley, 1995). [7] E.O. Kane, J. of Appl. Phy 32, 83 (1961). [8] T. Growden, et al., Nature Light: Science & Applications 7, 17150 (2018). 
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