skip to main content


Title: Potentially Singular Behavior of the 3D Navier–Stokes Equations
Whether the 3D incompressible Navier–Stokes equations can develop a finite time sin- gularity from smooth initial data is one of the most challenging problems in nonlinear PDEs. In this paper, we present some new numerical evidence that the incompress- ible axisymmetric Navier–Stokes equations with smooth initial data of finite energy seem to develop potentially singular behavior at the origin. This potentially singular behavior is induced by a potential finite time singularity of the 3D Euler equations that we reported in a companion paper published in the same issue, see also Hou (Poten- tial singularity of the 3D Euler equations in the interior domain. arXiv:2107.05870 [math.AP], 2021). We present numerical evidence that the 3D Navier–Stokes equa- tions develop nearly self-similar singular scaling properties with maximum vorticity increased by a factor of 107. We have applied several blow-up criteria to study the potentially singular behavior of the Navier–Stokes equations. The Beale–Kato–Majda blow-up criterion and the blow-up criteria based on the growth of enstrophy and neg- ative pressure seem to imply that the Navier–Stokes equations using our initial data develop a potential finite time singularity. We have also examined the Ladyzhenskaya– Prodi–Serrin regularity criteria (Kiselev and Ladyzhenskaya in Izv Akad Nauk SSSR Ser Mat 21(5):655–690, 1957; Prodi in Ann Math Pura Appl 4(48):173–182, 1959; Serrin in Arch Ration Mech Anal 9:187–191, 1962) that are based on the growth rate of Lqt Lxp norm of the velocity with 3/p + 2/q ≤ 1. Our numerical results for the cases of (p,q) = (4,8), (6,4), (9,3) and (p,q) = (∞,2) provide strong evidence for the potentially singular behavior of the Navier–Stokes equations. The critical case of (p,q) = (3,∞) is more difficult to verify numerically due to the extremely slow growth rate in the L3 norm of the velocity field and the significant contribution from the far field where we have a relatively coarse grid. Our numerical study shows that while the global L3 norm of the velocity grows very slowly, the localized version of the L 3 norm of the velocity experiences rapid dynamic growth relative to the localized L 3 norm of the initial velocity. This provides further evidence for the potentially singular behavior of the Navier–Stokes equations.  more » « less
Award ID(s):
2205590
NSF-PAR ID:
10437512
Author(s) / Creator(s):
Date Published:
Journal Name:
Foundations of Computational Mathematics
ISSN:
1615-3375
Format(s):
Medium: X
Sponsoring Org:
National Science Foundation
More Like this
  1. Whether the 3D incompressible Euler equations can develop a finite time singularity from smooth initial data is one of the most challenging problems in nonlinear PDEs. In this paper, we present some new numerical evidence that the 3D axisymmetric incompressible Euler equations with smooth initial data of finite energy develop a potential finite time singularity at the origin. This potential singularity is different from the blow-up scenario revealed by Luo and Hou (111:12968–12973, 2014) and (12:1722–1776, 2014), which occurs on the boundary. Our initial condition has a simple form and shares several attractive features of a more sophisticated initial condition constructed by Hou and Huang in (arXiv:2102.06663, 2021) and (435:133257, 2022). One important difference between these two blow-up scenarios is that the solution for our initial data has a one-scale structure instead of a two-scale structure reported in Hou and Huang (arXiv:2102.06663, 2021) and (435:133257, 2022). More importantly, the solution seems to develop nearly self-similar scaling properties that are compatible with those of the 3D Navier–Stokes equations. We will present numerical evidence that the 3D Euler equations seem to develop a potential finite time singularity. Moreover, the nearly self-similar profile seems to be very stable to the small perturbation of the initial data. 
    more » « less
  2. null (Ed.)
    Inspired by the numerical evidence of a potential 3D Euler singularity by Luo- Hou [30,31] and the recent breakthrough by Elgindi [11] on the singularity formation of the 3D Euler equation without swirl with $C^{1,\alpha}$ initial data for the velocity, we prove the finite time singularity for the 2D Boussinesq and the 3D axisymmetric Euler equations in the presence of boundary with $C^{1,\alpha}$ initial data for the velocity (and density in the case of Boussinesq equations). Our finite time blowup solution for the 3D Euler equations and the singular solution considered in [30,31] share many essential features, including the symmetry properties of the solution, the flow structure, and the sign of the solution in each quadrant, except that we use $C^{1,\alpha}$ initial data for the velocity field. We use a dynamic rescaling formulation and follow the general framework of analysis developed by Elgindi in [11]. We also use some strategy proposed in our recent joint work with Huang in [7] and adopt several methods of analysis in [11] to establish the linear and nonlinear stability of an approximate self-similar profile. The nonlinear stability enables us to prove that the solution of the 3D Euler equations or the 2D Boussinesq equations with $C^{1,\alpha}$ initial data will develop a finite time singularity. Moreover, the velocity field has finite energy before the singularity time. 
    more » « less
  3. The velocity–vorticity formulation of the 3D Navier–Stokes equations was recently found to give excellent numerical results for flows with strong rotation. In this work, we propose a new regularization of the 3D Navier–Stokes equations, which we call the 3D velocity–vorticity-Voigt (VVV) model, with a Voigt regularization term added to momentum equation in velocity–vorticity form, but with no regularizing term in the vorticity equation. We prove global well-posedness and regularity of this model under periodic boundary conditions. We prove convergence of the model's velocity and vorticity to their counterparts in the 3D Navier–Stokes equations as the Voigt modeling parameter tends to zero. We prove that the curl of the model's velocity converges to the model vorticity (which is solved for directly), as the Voigt modeling parameter tends to zero. Finally, we provide a criterion for finite-time blow-up of the 3D Navier–Stokes equations based on this inviscid regularization. 
    more » « less
  4. The aim of this note is to present the recent results by Buckmaster, Cao-Labora, and Gómez-Serrano [Smooth imploding solutions for 3D compressible fluids, Arxiv preprint arXiv:2208.09445, 2022] concerning the existence of “imploding singularities” for the 3D isentropic compressible Euler and Navier-Stokes equations. Our work builds upon the pioneering work of Merle, Raphaël, Rodnianski and Szeftel [Invent. Math. 227 (2022), pp. 247–413; Ann. of Math. (2) 196 (2022), pp. 567–778; Ann. of Math. (2) 196 (2022), pp. 779–889] and proves the existence of self-similar profiles for all adiabatic exponents γ > 1 \gamma >1 in the case of Euler; as well as proving asymptotic self-similar blow-up for γ = 7 5 \gamma =\frac 75 in the case of Navier-Stokes. Importantly, for the Navier-Stokes equation, the solution is constructed to have density bounded away from zero and constant at infinity, the first example of blow-up in such a setting. For simplicity, we will focus our exposition on the compressible Euler equations. 
    more » « less
  5. In this paper, we numerically study a class of solutions with spiraling singularities in vorticity for two-dimensional, inviscid, compressible Euler systems, where the initial data have an algebraic singularity in vorticity at the origin. These are different from the multi- dimensional Riemann problems widely studied in the literature. Our computations provide numerical evidence of the existence of initial value problems with multiple solutions, thus revealing a fundamental obstruction toward the well-posedness of the governing equations. The compressible Euler equations are solved using the positivity-preserving discontinuous Galerkin method. 
    more » « less