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  1. Free, publicly-accessible full text available September 30, 2024
  2. We provide a concise review of the exponentially convergent multiscale finite element method (ExpMsFEM) for efficient model reduction of PDEs in heterogeneous media without scale separation and in high-frequency wave propagation. The ExpMsFEM is built on the non-overlapped domain decomposition in the classical MsFEM while enriching the approximation space systematically to achieve a nearly exponential convergence rate regarding the number of basis functions. Unlike most generalizations of the MsFEM in the literature, the ExpMsFEM does not rely on any partition of unity functions. In general, it is necessary to use function representations dependent on the right-hand side to break the algebraic Kolmogorov n-width barrier to achieve exponential convergence. Indeed, there are online and offline parts in the function representation provided by the ExpMsFEM. The online part depends on the right-hand side locally and can be computed in parallel efficiently. The offline part contains basis functions that are used in the Galerkin method to assemble the stiffness matrix; they are all independent of the right-hand side, so the stiffness matrix can be used repeatedly in multi-query scenarios. 
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  3. Whether the 3D incompressible Euler equations can develop a finite time singularity from smooth initial data is one of the most challenging problems in nonlinear PDEs. In this paper, we present some new numerical evidence that the 3D axisymmetric incompressible Euler equations with smooth initial data of finite energy develop a potential finite time singularity at the origin. This potential singularity is different from the blow-up scenario revealed by Luo and Hou (111:12968–12973, 2014) and (12:1722–1776, 2014), which occurs on the boundary. Our initial condition has a simple form and shares several attractive features of a more sophisticated initial condition constructed by Hou and Huang in (arXiv:2102.06663, 2021) and (435:133257, 2022). One important difference between these two blow-up scenarios is that the solution for our initial data has a one-scale structure instead of a two-scale structure reported in Hou and Huang (arXiv:2102.06663, 2021) and (435:133257, 2022). More importantly, the solution seems to develop nearly self-similar scaling properties that are compatible with those of the 3D Navier–Stokes equations. We will present numerical evidence that the 3D Euler equations seem to develop a potential finite time singularity. Moreover, the nearly self-similar profile seems to be very stable to the small perturbation of the initial data. 
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  4. Whether the 3D incompressible Navier–Stokes equations can develop a finite time sin- gularity from smooth initial data is one of the most challenging problems in nonlinear PDEs. In this paper, we present some new numerical evidence that the incompress- ible axisymmetric Navier–Stokes equations with smooth initial data of finite energy seem to develop potentially singular behavior at the origin. This potentially singular behavior is induced by a potential finite time singularity of the 3D Euler equations that we reported in a companion paper published in the same issue, see also Hou (Poten- tial singularity of the 3D Euler equations in the interior domain. arXiv:2107.05870 [math.AP], 2021). We present numerical evidence that the 3D Navier–Stokes equa- tions develop nearly self-similar singular scaling properties with maximum vorticity increased by a factor of 107. We have applied several blow-up criteria to study the potentially singular behavior of the Navier–Stokes equations. The Beale–Kato–Majda blow-up criterion and the blow-up criteria based on the growth of enstrophy and neg- ative pressure seem to imply that the Navier–Stokes equations using our initial data develop a potential finite time singularity. We have also examined the Ladyzhenskaya– Prodi–Serrin regularity criteria (Kiselev and Ladyzhenskaya in Izv Akad Nauk SSSR Ser Mat 21(5):655–690, 1957; Prodi in Ann Math Pura Appl 4(48):173–182, 1959; Serrin in Arch Ration Mech Anal 9:187–191, 1962) that are based on the growth rate of Lqt Lxp norm of the velocity with 3/p + 2/q ≤ 1. Our numerical results for the cases of (p,q) = (4,8), (6,4), (9,3) and (p,q) = (∞,2) provide strong evidence for the potentially singular behavior of the Navier–Stokes equations. The critical case of (p,q) = (3,∞) is more difficult to verify numerically due to the extremely slow growth rate in the L3 norm of the velocity field and the significant contribution from the far field where we have a relatively coarse grid. Our numerical study shows that while the global L3 norm of the velocity grows very slowly, the localized version of the L 3 norm of the velocity experiences rapid dynamic growth relative to the localized L 3 norm of the initial velocity. This provides further evidence for the potentially singular behavior of the Navier–Stokes equations. 
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