This content will become publicly available on August 1, 2024
- NSF-PAR ID:
- Pupko, Tal
- Date Published:
- Journal Name:
- Molecular Biology and Evolution
- Medium: X
- Sponsoring Org:
- National Science Foundation
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Ruane, Sara (Ed.)Abstract Some phylogenetic problems remain unresolved even when large amounts of sequence data are analyzed and methods that accommodate processes such as incomplete lineage sorting are employed. In addition to investigating biological sources of phylogenetic incongruence, it is also important to reduce noise in the phylogenomic dataset by using appropriate filtering approach that addresses gene tree estimation errors. We present the results of a case study in manakins, focusing on the very difficult clade comprising the genera Antilophia and Chiroxiphia. Previous studies suggest that Antilophia is nested within Chiroxiphia, though relationships among Antilophia+Chiroxiphia species have been highly unstable. We extracted more than 11,000 loci (ultra-conserved elements and introns) from whole genomes and conducted analyses using concatenation and multispecies coalescent methods. Topologies resulting from analyses using all loci differed depending on the data type and analytical method, with 2 clades (Antilophia+Chiroxiphia and Manacus+Pipra+Machaeopterus) in the manakin tree showing incongruent results. We hypothesized that gene trees that conflicted with a long coalescent branch (e.g., the branch uniting Antilophia+Chiroxiphia) might be enriched for cases of gene tree estimation error, so we conducted analyses that either constrained those gene trees to include monophyly of Antilophia+Chiroxiphia or excluded these loci. While constraining trees reduced some incongruence, excluding the trees led to completely congruent species trees, regardless of the data type or model of sequence evolution used. We found that a suite of gene metrics (most importantly the number of informative sites and likelihood of intralocus recombination) collectively explained the loci that resulted in non-monophyly of Antilophia+Chiroxiphia. We also found evidence for introgression that may have contributed to the discordant topologies we observe in Antilophia+Chiroxiphia and led to deviations from expectations given the multispecies coalescent model. Our study highlights the importance of identifying factors that can obscure phylogenetic signal when dealing with recalcitrant phylogenetic problems, such as gene tree estimation error, incomplete lineage sorting, and reticulation events. [Birds; c-gene; data type; gene estimation error; model fit; multispecies coalescent; phylogenomics; reticulation]more » « less
The family Mutillidae (Hymenoptera) is a species‐rich group of aculeate wasps that occur worldwide. The higher‐level classification of the family has historically been controversial due, in part, to the extreme sexual dimorphism exhibited by these insects and their morphological similarity to other wasp taxa that also have apterous females. Modern hypotheses on the internal higher classification of Mutillidae have been exclusively based on morphology and, further, they include Myrmosinae as a mutillid subfamily. In contrast, several molecular‐based family‐level studies of Aculeata recovered Myrmosinae as a nonmutillid taxon. To test the validity of these morphology‐based classifications and the phylogenetic placement of the controversial taxon Myrmosinae, a phylogenomic study of Mutillidae was conducted using ultraconserved elements (UCEs). All currently recognized subfamilies and tribes of Mutillidae were represented in this study using 140 ingroup taxa. The maximum likelihood criterion (ML) and the maximum parsimony criterion (MP) were used to infer the phylogenetic relationships within the family and related taxa using an aligned data set of 238,764 characters; the topologies of these respective analyses were largely congruent. The modern higher classification of Mutillidae, based on morphology, is largely congruent with the phylogenomic results of this study at the subfamily level, whereas the tribal classification is poorly supported. The subfamily Myrmosinae was recovered as sister to Sapygidae in the ML analysis and sister to Sapygidae + Pompilidae in the MP analysis; it is consequently raised to the family level, Myrmosidae,
stat.nov.The two constituent tribes of Myrmosidae are raised to the subfamily level, Kudakrumiinae, stat.nov., and Myrmosinae, stat.nov.All four recognized tribes of Mutillinae were found to be non‐monophyletic; three additional mutilline clades were recovered in addition to Ctenotillini, Mutillini, Smicromyrmini, and Trogaspidiini sensu stricto. Three new tribes are erected for members of these clades: Pristomutillini Waldren, trib.nov., Psammothermini Waldren, trib.nov., and Zeugomutillini Waldren, trib.nov.All three recognized tribes of Sphaeropthalminae were found to be non‐monophyletic; six additional sphaeropthalmine clades were recovered in addition to Dasymutillini, Pseudomethocini, and Sphaeropthalmini sensu stricto. The subtribe Ephutina of Mutillinae: Mutillini was found to be polyphyletic, with the Ephutagenus‐group recovered within Sphaeropthalminae and the Odontomutillagenus‐group recovered as sister to Myrmillinae + Mutillinae. Consequently, the subtribe Ephutina is transferred from Mutillinae: Mutillini and is raised to a tribe within Sphaeropthalminae, Ephutini, stat.nov.Further, the taxon Odontomutillinae, stat.nov., is raised from a synonym of Ephutina to the subfamily level. The sphaeropthalmine tribe Pseudomethocini was found to be polyphyletic, with the subtribe Euspinoliina recovered as a separate clade in Sphaeropthalminae; consequently, Euspinoliina is raised to a tribe, Euspinoliini, stat.nov., in Sphaeropthalminae. The dasylabrine tribe Apteromutillini was recovered within Dasylabrini and is proposed as a new synonym of Dasylabrinae. Finally, dating analyses were conducted to infer the ages of the Pompiloidea families (Mutillidae, Myrmosidae, Pompilidae, and Sapygidae) and the ages of the Mutillidae subfamilies and tribes.
Relationships among the major lineages of Mollusca have long been debated. Morphological studies have considered the rarely collected Monoplacophora (Tryblidia) to have several plesiomorphic molluscan traits. The phylogenetic position of this group is contentious as morphologists have generally placed this clade as the sister taxon of the rest of Conchifera whereas earlier molecular studies supported a clade of Monoplacophora + Polyplacophora (Serialia) and phylogenomic studies have generally recovered a clade of Monoplacophora + Cephalopoda. Phylogenomic studies have also strongly supported a clade including Gastropoda, Bivalvia, and Scaphopoda, but relationships among these taxa have been inconsistent. In order to resolve conchiferan relationships and improve understanding of early molluscan evolution, we carefully curated a high-quality data matrix and conducted phylogenomic analyses with broad taxon sampling including newly sequenced genomic data from the monoplacophoran
Laevipilina antarctica. Whereas a partitioned maximum likelihood (ML) analysis using site-homogeneous models recovered Monoplacophora sister to Cephalopoda with moderate support, both ML and Bayesian inference (BI) analyses using mixture models recovered Monoplacophora sister to all other conchiferans with strong support. A supertree approach also recovered Monoplacophora as the sister taxon of a clade composed of the rest of Conchifera. Gastropoda was recovered as the sister taxon of Scaphopoda in most analyses, which was strongly supported when mixture models were used. A molecular clock based on our BI topology dates diversification of Mollusca to ~546 MYA (+/− 6 MYA) and Conchifera to ~540 MYA (+/− 9 MYA), generally consistent with previous work employing nuclear housekeeping genes. These results provide important resolution of conchiferan mollusc phylogeny and offer new insights into ancestral character states of major mollusc clades.
LiriomyzaMik (Diptera: Agromyzidae) is a diverse and globally distributed group of acalyptrate flies. Phylogenetic relationships among Liriomyzaspecies have remained incompletely investigated and have never been fully addressed using molecular data. Here, we reconstruct the phylogeny of the genus Liriomyzausing various phylogenetic methods (maximum likelihood, Bayesian inference, and gene tree coalescence) on target‐capture‐based phylogenomic datasets (nucleotides and amino acids) obtained from anchored hybrid enrichment (AHE). We have recovered tree topologies that are nearly congruent across all data types and methods, and individual clade support is strong across all phylogenetic analyses. Moreover, defined morphological species groups and clades are well‐supported in our best estimates of the molecular phylogeny. Liriomyza violivora(Spencer) is a sister group to all remaining sampled Liriomyzaspecies, and the well‐known polyphagous vegetable pests [ L. huidobrensis(Blanchard), L. langeiFrick, L. bryoniae.(Kaltenbach), L. trifolii(Burgess), L. sativaeBlanchard, and L. brassicae(Riley)]. belong to multiple clades that are not particularly closely related on the trees. Often, closely related Liriomyzaspecies feed on distantly related host plants. We reject the hypothesis that cophylogenetic processes between Liriomyzaspecies and their host plants drive diversification in this genus. Instead, Liriomyzaexhibits a widespread pattern of major host shifts across plant taxa. Our new phylogenetic estimate for Liriomyzaspecies provides considerable new information on the evolution of host‐use patterns in this genus. In addition, it provides a framework for further study of the morphology, ecology, and diversification of these important flies.
Phylogenomic analysis of large genome-wide sequence data sets can resolve phylogenetic tree topologies for large species groups, help test the accuracy of and improve resolution for earlier multi-locus studies and reveal the level of agreement or concordance within partitions of the genome for various tree topologies. Here we used a target-capture approach to sequence 1088 single-copy exons for more than 200 labrid fishes together with more than 100 outgroup taxa to generate a new data-rich phylogeny for the family Labridae. Our time-calibrated phylogenetic analysis of exon-capture data pushes the root node age of the family Labridae back into the Cretaceous to about 79 Ma years ago. The monotypic Centrogenys vaigiensis, and the order Uranoscopiformes (stargazers) are identified as the sister lineages of Labridae. The phylogenetic relationships among major labrid subfamilies and within these clades were largely congruent with prior analyses of select mitochondrial and nuclear datasets. However, the position of the tribe Cirrhilabrini (fairy and flame wrasses) showed discordance, resolving either as the sister to a crown julidine clade or alternatively sister to a group formed by the labrines, cheilines and scarines. Exploration of this pattern using multiple approaches leads to slightly higher support for this latter hypothesis, highlighting the importance of genome-level data sets for resolving short internodes at key phylogenetic positions in a large, economically important groups of coral reef fishes. More broadly, we demonstrate how accounting for sources of biological variability from incomplete lineage sorting and exploring systematic error at conflicting nodes can aid in evaluating alternative phylogenetic hypotheses. [coral reefs; divergence time estimation; exon-capture; fossil calibration; incomplete lineage sorting.]