skip to main content


This content will become publicly available on December 1, 2024

Title: Sensor orientation of the TMD seismic network (Thailand) from P-wave particle motions
Abstract The Thai Meteorological Department (TMD) seismic network began development in 2008. There are a total of 71 seismic stations consisting of 26 borehole stations and 45 surface stations currently installed. The three-component data from the TMD seismic network have been widely used in previous seismological studies. In a recent analysis, we have found that sensor orientation as reported in the site metadata is sometimes significantly incorrect, especially for borehole stations. In this study, we analyze P-wave polarization data from regional and teleseismic earthquakes recorded in the network to estimate the true instrument orientation relative to geographic north and compare that to station metadata. Of the 45 surface stations, we found that at present, ~ 82% are well oriented (i.e., aligned within 0–15° of true north). However, 8 sites have sensors misoriented by more than 15°, and some stations had a temporal change in sensor orientation during an upgrade to the seismic system with replacement of the sensor. We also evaluated sensor orientations for 26 TMD borehole seismic stations, from 2018 to the 2022. For many of the borehole stations, the actual sensor orientation differs significantly from the TMD metadata, especially at short-period stations. Many of those stations have sensor misorientations approaching 180°, due to errors in the ambient noise analysis calibration techniques used during installation. We have also investigated how this sensor misorientation affects previous seismic studies, such as regional moment tensor inversion of earthquakes sources and receiver function stacking. We have found that the large deviations in sensor orientation can result in erroneous results and/or large measurement errors. A cause of the orientation error for borehole sites could be a combination of strong background surface ambient seismic noise coupled with an incorrect reference instrument response.  more » « less
Award ID(s):
1714892
NSF-PAR ID:
10442489
Author(s) / Creator(s):
; ; ;
Date Published:
Journal Name:
Geoscience Letters
Volume:
10
Issue:
1
ISSN:
2196-4092
Format(s):
Medium: X
Sponsoring Org:
National Science Foundation
More Like this
  1. ABSTRACT Earthquakes generate infrasound in multiple ways. Acoustic coupling at the surface from vertical seismic velocity, termed local infrasound, is often recorded by infrasound sensors but has seen relatively little study. Over 140 infrasound stations have recently been deployed in Alaska. Most of these stations have single sensors, rather than arrays, and were originally installed as part of the EarthScope Transportable Array. The single sensor nature, paucity of ground-truth signals, and remoteness makes evaluating their data quality and utility challenging. In addition, despite notable recent advances, infrasound calibration and frequency response evaluation remains challenging, particularly for large networks and retrospective analysis of sensors already installed. Here, we examine local seismoacoustic coupling on colocated seismic and infrasound stations in Alaska. Numerous large earthquakes across the region in recent years generated considerable vertical seismic velocity and local infrasound that were recorded on colocated sensors. We build on previous work and evaluate the full infrasound station frequency response using seismoacoustic coupled waves. By employing targeted signal processing techniques, we show that a single seismometer may be sufficient for characterizing the response of an entire nearby infrasound array. We find that good low frequency (<1 Hz) infrasound station response estimates can be derived from large (Mw>7) earthquakes out to at least 1500 km. High infrasound noise levels at some stations and seismic-wave energy focused at low frequencies limit our response estimates. The response of multiple stations in Alaska is found to differ considerably from their metadata and are related to improper installation and erroneous metadata. Our method provides a robust way to remotely examine infrasound station frequency response and examine seismoacoustic coupling, which is being increasingly used in airborne infrasound observations, earthquake magnitude estimation, and other applications. 
    more » « less
  2. SUMMARY The Ecuadorian forearc is a complex region of accreted terranes with a history of large megathrust earthquakes. Most recently, a Mw 7.8 megathrust earthquake ruptured the plate boundary offshore of Pedernales, Ecuador on 16 April 2016. Following this event, an international collaboration arranged by the Instituto Geofisico at the Escuela Politécnica Nacional mobilized a rapid deployment of 65 seismic instruments along the Ecuadorian forearc. We combine this new seismic data set with 14 permanent stations from the Ecuadorian national network to better understand how variations in crustal structure relate to regional seismic hazards along the margin. Here, we present receiver function adaptive common conversion point stacks and a shear velocity model derived from the joint inversion of receiver functions and surface wave dispersion data obtained through ambient noise cross-correlations for the upper 50 km of the forearc. Beneath the forearc crust, we observe an eastward dipping slow velocity anomaly we interpret as subducting oceanic crust, which shallows near the projected centre of the subducting Carnegie Ridge. We also observe a strong shallow positive conversion in the Ecuadorian forearc near the Borbon Basin indicating a major discontinuity at a depth of ∼7 km. This conversion is not ubiquitous and may be the top of the accreted terranes. We also observe significant north–south changes in shear wave velocity. The velocity changes indicate variations in the accreted terranes and may indicate an increased amount of hydration beneath the Manabí Basin. This change in structure also correlates geographically with the southern rupture limit of multiple high magnitude megathrust earthquakes. The earthquake record along the Ecuadorian trench shows that no event with a Mw >7.4 has ruptured south of ∼0.5°S in southern Ecuador or northern Peru. Our observations, along with previous studies, suggest that variations in the forearc crustal structure and subducting oceanic crust may influance the occurrence and spatial distribution of high magnitude seismicity in the region. 
    more » « less
  3. SUMMARY

    Sedimentary basins can strongly amplify seismic waves from earthquakes. To better predict future ground motions, detailed knowledge of the sediment thickness and internal structure of basins is required. We image the sediment-to-bedrock interface of the Kanto Basin in Japan using the P-wave reflectivity response from earthquake and ambient seismic noise autocorrelation functions (ACFs) at 286 shallow borehole stations. Earthquake ACFs are computed using P-wave records from 50 Mw 6+ teleseismic events. Noise ACFs are obtained using 1 month of continuous data. Both methods are used to retrieve P-wave traveltimes between the surface and the bedrock interface and map the basin basement geometry. Our prediction of the basement depth agrees generally well with that from a reference velocity model, except for smoother variations in the central part of the basin. Using full-wavefield simulations, we show that the nature of the autocorrelated wavefield has a significant impact on the shape of the ACF waveforms and that earthquake ACFs yield more accurate results in the Kanto Basin.

     
    more » « less
  4. Abstract

    The upper mantle and transition zone beneath Antarctica and the surrounding oceans are among the poorest‐imaged regions of the Earth's interior. Over the last 15 years, several large broadband regional seismic arrays have been deployed, as have new permanent seismic stations. Using data from 297 Antarctic and 26 additional seismic stations south of ~40°S, we image the seismic structure of the upper mantle and transition zone using adjoint tomography. Over the course of 20 iterations, we utilize phase observations from three‐component seismograms containingP,S, Rayleigh, and Love waves, including reflections and overtones, generated by 270 earthquakes that occurred from 2001–2003 and 2007–2016. The new continental‐scale seismic model (ANT‐20) possesses regional‐scale resolution south of 60°S. In East Antarctica, thinner continental lithosphere is found beneath areas of Dronning Maud Land and Enderby‐Kemp Land. A continuous slow wave speed anomaly extends from the Balleny Islands through the western Ross Embayment and delineates areas of Cenozoic extension and volcanism that span both oceanic and continental regions. Slow wave speed anomalies are also imaged beneath Marie Byrd Land and along the Amundsen Sea Coast, extending to the Antarctic Peninsula. These anomalies are confined to the upper 200–250 km of the mantle, except in the vicinity of Marie Byrd Land where they extend into the transition zone and possibly deeper. Finally, slow wave speeds along the Amundsen Sea Coast link to deeper anomalies offshore, suggesting a possible connection with deeper mantle processes.

     
    more » « less
  5. ABSTRACT Earthquake ground motions in the vicinity of receivers couple with the atmosphere to generate pressure perturbations that are detectable by infrasound sensors. These so-called local infrasound signals traverse very short source-to-receiver paths, so that they often exhibit a remarkable correlation with seismic velocity waveforms at collocated seismic stations, and there exists a simple relationship between vertical seismic velocity and pressure time series. This study leverages the large regional network of infrasound sensors in Alaska to examine local infrasound from several light to great Alaska earthquakes. We estimate seismic velocity time series from infrasound pressure records and use these converted infrasound recordings to compute earthquake magnitudes. This technique has potential utility beyond the novelty of recording seismic velocities on pressure sensors. Because local infrasound amplitudes from ground motions are small, it is possible to recover seismic velocities at collocated sites where the broadband seismometers have clipped. Infrasound-derived earthquake magnitudes exhibit good agreement with seismically derived values. This proof-of-concept demonstration of computing seismic magnitudes from infrasound sensors illustrates that infrasound sensors may be utilized as proxy vertical-component seismometers, making a new data set available for existing seismic techniques. Because single-sensor infrasound stations are relatively inexpensive and are becoming ubiquitous, this technique could be used to augment existing regional seismic networks using a readily available sensor platform. 
    more » « less