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Title: A dynamical graph-based feature extraction approach to enhance mental task classification in brain–computer interfaces
Graph theoretic approaches in analyzing spatiotemporal dynamics of brain activities are under-studied but could be very promising directions in developing effective brain–computer interfaces (BCIs). Many existing BCI systems use electroencephalogram (EEG) signals to record and decode human neural activities noninvasively. Often, however, the features extracted from the EEG signals ignore the topological information hidden in the EEG temporal dynamics. Moreover, existing graph theoretic approaches are mostly used to reveal the topological patterns of brain functional networks based on synchronization between signals from distinctive spatial regions, instead of interdependence between states at different timestamps. In this study, we present a robust fold-wise hyperparameter optimization framework utilizing a series of conventional graph-based measurements combined with spectral graph features and investigate its discriminative performance on classification of a designed mental task in 6 participants with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). Across all of our participants, we reached an average accuracy of 71.1% ± 4.5% for mental task classification by combining the global graph-based measurements and the spectral graph features, higher than the conventional non-graph based feature performance (67.1% ± 7.5%). Compared to using either one of the graphic features (66.3% ± 6.5% for the eigenvalues and 65.9% ± 5.2% for the global graph features), our feature combination strategy shows considerable improvement in both accuracy and robustness performance. Our results indicate the feasibility and advantage of the presented fold-wise optimization framework utilizing graph-based features in BCI systems targeted at end-users.  more » « less
Award ID(s):
1913492 2006012
NSF-PAR ID:
10443603
Author(s) / Creator(s):
; ; ; ; ; ; ;
Date Published:
Journal Name:
Computers in biology and medicine
ISSN:
0010-4825
Format(s):
Medium: X
Sponsoring Org:
National Science Foundation
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We used a variety of techniques such as the file locking mechanism, multithreading, circular buffers, real-time event decoding, and signal-decision plotting to realize the system. A video demonstrating the system is available at: https://www.isip.piconepress.com/projects/nsf_pfi_tt/resources/videos/realtime_eeg_analysis/v2.5.1/video_2.5.1.mp4. The final conference submission will include a more detailed analysis of the online performance of each module. ACKNOWLEDGMENTS Research reported in this publication was most recently supported by the National Science Foundation Partnership for Innovation award number IIP-1827565 and the Pennsylvania Commonwealth Universal Research Enhancement Program (PA CURE). Any opinions, findings, and conclusions or recommendations expressed in this material are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily reflect the official views of any of these organizations. REFERENCES [1] A. Craik, Y. He, and J. L. Contreras-Vidal, “Deep learning for electroencephalogram (EEG) classification tasks: a review,” J. Neural Eng., vol. 16, no. 3, p. 031001, 2019. https://doi.org/10.1088/1741-2552/ab0ab5. [2] A. C. Bridi, T. Q. Louro, and R. C. L. Da Silva, “Clinical Alarms in intensive care: implications of alarm fatigue for the safety of patients,” Rev. Lat. Am. Enfermagem, vol. 22, no. 6, p. 1034, 2014. https://doi.org/10.1590/0104-1169.3488.2513. [3] M. Golmohammadi, V. Shah, I. Obeid, and J. Picone, “Deep Learning Approaches for Automatic Seizure Detection from Scalp Electroencephalograms,” in Signal Processing in Medicine and Biology: Emerging Trends in Research and Applications, 1st ed., I. Obeid, I. Selesnick, and J. Picone, Eds. New York, New York, USA: Springer, 2020, pp. 233–274. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-36844-9_8. [4] “CFM Olympic Brainz Monitor.” [Online]. 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New York City, New York, USA: Demos Medical Publishing, 2007. [9] D. P. Bovet and C. Marco, Understanding the Linux Kernel, 3rd ed. O’Reilly Media, Inc., 2005. https://www.oreilly.com/library/view/understanding-the-linux/0596005652/. [10] V. Shah et al., “The Temple University Hospital Seizure Detection Corpus,” Front. Neuroinform., vol. 12, pp. 1–6, 2018. https://doi.org/10.3389/fninf.2018.00083. [11] F. Pedregosa et al., “Scikit-learn: Machine Learning in Python,” J. Mach. Learn. Res., vol. 12, pp. 2825–2830, 2011. https://dl.acm.org/doi/10.5555/1953048.2078195. [12] J. Gotman, D. Flanagan, J. Zhang, and B. Rosenblatt, “Automatic seizure detection in the newborn: Methods and initial evaluation,” Electroencephalogr. Clin. Neurophysiol., vol. 103, no. 3, pp. 356–362, 1997. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0013-4694(97)00003-9. 
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