The Hohenberg-Kohn theorem of density-functional theory establishes the existence of a bijection between the ground-state electron density and the external potential of a many-body system. This guarantees a one-to-one map from the electron density to all observables of interest including electronic excited-state energies. Time-Dependent Density-Functional Theory (TDDFT) provides one framework to resolve this map; however, the approximations inherent in practical TDDFT calculations, together with their computational expense, motivate finding a cheaper, more direct map for electronic excitations. Here, we show that determining density and energy functionals via machine learning allows the equations of TDDFT to be bypassed. The framework we introduce is used to perform the first excited-state molecular dynamics simulations with a machine-learned functional on malonaldehyde and correctly capture the kinetics of its excited-state intramolecular proton transfer, allowing insight into how mechanical constraints can be used to control the proton transfer reaction in this molecule. This development opens the door to using machine-learned functionals for highly efficient excited-state dynamics simulations.
The construction of a better exchange-correlation potential in time-dependent density functional theory (TDDFT) can improve the accuracy of TDDFT calculations and provide more accurate predictions of the properties of many-electron systems. Here, we propose a machine learning method to develop the energy functional and the Kohn–Sham potential of a time-dependent Kohn–Sham (TDKS) system is proposed. The method is based on the dynamics of the Kohn–Sham system and does not require any data on the exact Kohn–Sham potential for training the model. We demonstrate the results of our method with a 1D harmonic oscillator example and a 1D two-electron example. We show that the machine-learned Kohn–Sham potential matches the exact Kohn–Sham potential in the absence of memory effect. Our method can still capture the dynamics of the Kohn–Sham system in the presence of memory effects. The machine learning method developed in this article provides insight into making better approximations of the energy functional and the Kohn–Sham potential in the TDKS system.more » « less
- NSF-PAR ID:
- Publisher / Repository:
- IOP Publishing
- Date Published:
- Journal Name:
- Machine Learning: Science and Technology
- Page Range / eLocation ID:
- Article No. 035022
- Medium: X
- Sponsoring Org:
- National Science Foundation
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