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Title: Improved Simulation of Monsoon Depressions and Heavy Rains From Direct and Indirect Initialization of Soil Moisture Over India

This study investigates the impact of direct versus indirect initialization of soil moisture (SM) and soil temperature (ST) on monsoon depressions (MDs) and heavy rainfall simulations over India. SM/ST products obtained from high‐resolution, land data assimilation system (LDAS) are used in the direct initialization of land surface conditions in the ARW modeling system. In the indirect method, the initial SM is sequentially adjusted through the flux‐adjusting surface data assimilation system (FASDAS). These two approaches are compared with a control experiment (CNTL) involving climatological SM/ST conditions for eight MDs at 4‐km horizontal resolution. The surface fields simulated by the LDAS run showed the highest agreement, followed by FASDAS for relatively dry June cases, but the error is high (~15–30%) for the relatively wet August cases. The moisture budget indicates that moisture convergence and local influence contributed more to rainfall. The surface‐rainfall feedback analysis reveals that surface conditions and evaporation have a dominant impact on the rainfall simulation and these couplings are notable in LDAS runs. The contiguous rain area (CRA) method indicates better performance of LDAS for very heavy rainfall distribution, and the location (ETS > 0.2), compared to FASDAS and CNTL. The pattern error contributes the maximum to the total rainfall error, and the displacement error is more in August cases' rainfall than that in June cases. Overall analyses indicated that the role of land conditions is significantly high in the drier month (June) than a wet month (August), and direct initialization of SM/ST fields yielded improved MD and heavy rain simulations.

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Award ID(s):
1902642 2228004
Author(s) / Creator(s):
 ;  ;  ;  ;  ;  ;  
Publisher / Repository:
DOI PREFIX: 10.1029
Date Published:
Journal Name:
Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres
Medium: X
Sponsoring Org:
National Science Foundation
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