skip to main content

Attention:

The NSF Public Access Repository (NSF-PAR) system and access will be unavailable from 11:00 PM ET on Friday, April 12 until 2:00 AM ET on Saturday, April 13 due to maintenance. We apologize for the inconvenience.


Title: DP2-Pub: Differentially Private High-Dimensional Data Publication With Invariant Post Randomization
A large amount of high-dimensional and heterogeneous data appear in practical applications, which are often published to third parties for data analysis, recommendations, targeted advertising, and reliable predictions. However, publishing these data may disclose personal sensitive information, resulting in an increasing concern on privacy violations. Privacy-preserving data publishing has received considerable attention in recent years. Unfortunately, the differentially private publication of high dimensional data remains a challenging problem. In this paper, we propose a differentially private high-dimensional data publication mechanism (DP2-Pub) that runs in two phases: a Markov-blanket-based attribute clustering phase and an invariant post randomization (PRAM) phase. Specifically, splitting attributes into several low-dimensional clusters with high intra-cluster cohesion and low inter-cluster coupling helps obtain a reasonable allocation of privacy budget, while a double-perturbation mechanism satisfying local differential privacy facilitates an invariant PRAM to ensure no loss of statistical information and thus significantly preserves data utility. We also extend our DP2-Pub mechanism to the scenario with a semi-honest server which satisfies local differential privacy. We conduct extensive experiments on four real-world datasets and the experimental results demonstrate that our mechanism can significantly improve the data utility of the published data while satisfying differential privacy.  more » « less
Award ID(s):
2125677
NSF-PAR ID:
10448599
Author(s) / Creator(s):
; ; ; ; ;
Date Published:
Journal Name:
IEEE transactions on knowledge and data engineering
ISSN:
1041-4347
Page Range / eLocation ID:
1-13
Format(s):
Medium: X
Sponsoring Org:
National Science Foundation
More Like this
  1. Kim, Yongdae ; Kim, Jong ; Vigna, Giovanni ; Shi, Elaine (Ed.)
    We study the problem of publishing a stream of real-valued data satisfying differential privacy (DP). One major challenge is that the maximal possible value in the stream can be quite large, leading to enormous DP noise and bad utility. To reduce the maximal value and noise, one way is to estimate a threshold so that values above it can be truncated. The intuition is that, in many scenarios, only a few values are large; thus truncation does not change the original data much. We develop such a method that finds a suitable threshold with DP. Given the threshold, we then propose an online hierarchical method and several post-processing techniques. Building on these ideas, we formalize the steps in a framework for the private publishing of streaming data. Our framework consists of three components: a threshold optimizer that privately estimates the threshold, a perturber that adds calibrated noise to the stream, and a smoother that improves the result using post-processing. Within our framework, we also design an algorithm satisfying the more stringent DP setting called local DP. Using four real-world datasets, we demonstrate that our mechanism outperforms the state-of-the-art by a factor of 6−10 orders of magnitude in terms of utility (measured by the mean squared error of the typical scenario of answering a random range query). 
    more » « less
  2. In many applications, multiple parties have private data regarding the same set of users but on disjoint sets of attributes, and a server wants to leverage the data to train a model. To enable model learning while protecting the privacy of the data subjects, we need vertical federated learning (VFL) techniques, where the data parties share only information for training the model, instead of the private data. However, it is challenging to ensure that the shared information maintains privacy while learning accurate models. To the best of our knowledge, the algorithm proposed in this paper is the first practical solution for differentially private vertical federatedk-means clustering, where the server can obtain a set of global centers with a provable differential privacy guarantee. Our algorithm assumes an untrusted central server that aggregates differentially private local centers and membership encodings from local data parties. It builds a weighted grid as the synopsis of the global dataset based on the received information. Final centers are generated by running anyk-means algorithm on the weighted grid. Our approach for grid weight estimation uses a novel, light-weight, and differentially private set intersection cardinality estimation algorithm based on the Flajolet-Martin sketch. To improve the estimation accuracy in the setting with more than two data parties, we further propose a refined version of the weights estimation algorithm and a parameter tuning strategy to reduce the finalk-means loss to be close to that in the central private setting. We provide theoretical utility analysis and experimental evaluation results for the cluster centers computed by our algorithm and show that our approach performs better both theoretically and empirically than the two baselines based on existing techniques 
    more » « less
  3. Differential privacy (DP) is a widely used notion for reasoning about privacy when publishing aggregate data. In this paper, we observe that certain DP mechanisms are amenable to a posteriori privacy analysis that exploits the fact that some outputs leak less information about the input database than others. To exploit this phenomenon, we introduce output differential privacy (ODP) and a new composition experiment, and leverage these new constructs to obtain significant privacy budget savings and improved privacy–utility tradeoffs under composition. All of this comes at no cost in terms of privacy; we do not weaken the privacy guarantee. To demonstrate the applicability of our a posteriori privacy analysis techniques, we analyze two well-known mechanisms: the Sparse Vector Technique and the Propose-Test-Release framework. We then show how our techniques can be used to save privacy budget in more general contexts: when a differentially private iterative mechanism terminates before its maximal number of iterations is reached, and when the output of a DP mechanism provides unsatisfactory utility. Examples of the former include iterative optimization algorithms, whereas examples of the latter include training a machine learning model with a large generalization error. Our techniques can be applied beyond the current paper to refine the analysis of existing DP mechanisms or guide the design of future mechanisms. 
    more » « less
  4. Abstract

    CDC WONDER is a web-based tool for the dissemination of epidemiologic data collected by the National Vital Statistics System. While CDC WONDER has built-in privacy protections, they do not satisfy formal privacy protections such as differential privacy and thus are susceptible to targeted attacks. Given the importance of making high-quality public health data publicly available while preserving the privacy of the underlying data subjects, we aim to improve the utility of a recently developed approach for generating Poisson-distributed, differentially private synthetic data by using publicly available information to truncate the range of the synthetic data. Specifically, we utilize county-level population information from the US Census Bureau and national death reports produced by the CDC to inform prior distributions on county-level death rates and infer reasonable ranges for Poisson-distributed, county-level death counts. In doing so, the requirements for satisfying differential privacy for a given privacy budget can be reduced by several orders of magnitude, thereby leading to substantial improvements in utility. To illustrate our proposed approach, we consider a dataset comprised of over 26,000 cancer-related deaths from the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania belonging to over 47,000 combinations of cause-of-death and demographic variables such as age, race, sex, and county-of-residence and demonstrate the proposed framework’s ability to preserve features such as geographic, urban/rural, and racial disparities present in the true data.

     
    more » « less
  5. When collecting information, local differential privacy (LDP) relieves the concern of privacy leakage from users' perspective, as user's private information is randomized before sent to the aggregator. We study the problem of recovering the distribution over a numerical domain while satisfying LDP. While one can discretize a numerical domain and then apply the protocols developed for categorical domains, we show that taking advantage of the numerical nature of the domain results in better trade-off of privacy and utility. We introduce a new reporting mechanism, called the square wave (SW) mechanism, which exploits the numerical nature in reporting. We also develop an Expectation Maximization with Smoothing (EMS) algorithm, which is applied to aggregated histograms from the SW mechanism to estimate the original distributions. Extensive experiments demonstrate that our proposed approach, SW with EMS, consistently outperforms other methods in a variety of utility metrics. 
    more » « less