This content will become publicly available on December 1, 2024
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- Scientific Reports
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- National Science Foundation
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ika virus is an emerging arbovirus of humans in the western hemisphere. With its potential spread into new geographical areas, it is important to define the vector competence of native mosquito species. We tested the vector competency of Aedes vexans (Meigen) from the Lake Agassiz Plain of northwestern Minnesota and northeastern North Dakota. Aedes aegypti (L.) was used as a positive control for comparison. Mosquitoes were fed blood containing Zika virus and 2 wk later were tested for viral infection and dissemination. Aedes vexans (n = 60) were susceptible to midgut infection (28% infection rate) but displayed a fairly restrictive midgut escape barrier (3% dissemination rate). Cofed Ae. aegypti (n = 22) displayed significantly higher rates of midgut infection (61%) and dissemination (22%). To test virus transmission, mosquitoes were inoculated with virus and 16-17 d later, tested for their ability to transmit virus into fluid-filled capillary tubes. Unexpectedly, the transmission rate was significantly higher for Ae. vexans (34%, n = 47) than for Ae. aegypti (5%, n = 22). The overall transmission potential for Ae. vexans to transmit Zika virus was 1%. Because of its wide geographic distribution, often extreme abundance, and aggressive human biting activity, Ae. vexans could serve as a potential vector for Zika virus in northern latitudes where the conventional vectors, Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus Skuse, cannot survive. However, Zika virus is a primate virus and humans are the only amplifying host species in northern latitudes. To serve as a vector of Zika virus, Ae. vexans must feed repeatedly on humans. Defining the propensity of Ae. vexans to feed repeatedly on humans will be key to understanding its role as a potential vector of Zika virus.more » « less
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Aedes aegypti, Aedes albopictusand Culex quinquefasciatusfrom the southeastern United States. Sequence analysis of bacterial 16S rRNA gene amplicons showed that bacterial community composition differed substantially in larvae from different collection sites, whereas larvae from the same site shared similarities. Although previously unknown to be infected by Wolbachia, results also indicated that Ae. aegyptifrom one field site hosted a dual infection. Regardless of collection site or factors like Wolbachiainfection, however, each mosquito species required living bacteria in their digestive tract to develop. Results also identified several concerns in using antibiotics to eliminate the bacterial community in larvae in order to study its developmental consequences. Altogether, our results indicate that several mosquito species require living bacteria for development. We also hypothesize these species do not rely on particular bacteria because larvae do not reliably encounter the same bacteria in the aquatic habitats they develop in.
Yee, Donald (Ed.)Abstract Container Aedes mosquitoes are the most important vectors of human arboviruses (i.e., dengue, chikungunya, Zika, or yellow fever). Invasive and native container Aedes spp. potentially utilize natural and artificial containers in specific environments for oviposition. Several container Aedes spp. display ‘skip-oviposition’ behavior, which describes the distribution of eggs among multiple containers during a single gonotrophic cycle. In this study, we compared individual skip-oviposition behavior using identical eight-cup testing arenas with three container Aedes species: Aedes aegypti (Linnaeus), Aedes albopictus (Skuse), and Aedes triseriatus (Say). We applied the index of dispersion, an aggregation statistic, to individual mosquitoes’ oviposition patterns to assess skip-oviposition behavior. Aedes aegypti and Ae. albopictus utilized more cups and distributed eggs more evenly among cups than Ae. triseriatus under nutritionally enriched oviposition media (oak leaf infusion) conditions. When presented with a nutritionally unenriched (tap water) oviposition media, both Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus increased egg spreading behavior. Aedes albopictus did not modify skip-oviposition behavior when reared and assessed under fall-like environmental conditions, which induce diapause egg production. This study indicates specific oviposition site conditions influence skip-oviposition behavior with ‘preferred’ sites receiving higher amounts of eggs from any given individual and ‘non-preferred’ sites receive a limited contribution of eggs. A further understanding of skip-oviposition behavior is needed to make the best use of autodissemination trap technology in which skip-ovipositing females spread a potent larvicide among oviposition sites within the environment.more » « less
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