skip to main content


This content will become publicly available on August 7, 2024

Title: Influence of liquid conductance on the temporal evolution of self-organization patterns in atmospheric pressure DC glow discharges
Abstract Self-Organized Patterns (SOPs) at plasma-liquid interface in atmospheric pressure plasma discharges refer to the formation of intricate and puzzling structures due to the interplay of electrodynamic and hydrodynamic processes. Studies conducted to date have shown that this phenomenon results in the formation of distinctive patterns such as circular ring, star, gear, dots, spikes, etc., and primarily depends on working gas, electrolyte type, gap distance, current, conductivity, etc. However, an adequate understanding of how these patterns change from one type to another is still not available. This study aims to elucidate the influence of initial liquid conductance ( σ i ) on the temporal evolution of SOPs in liquid-anode discharges. The discharge was generated in a pin-to-liquid anode configuration at a constant helium (He) flow rate of 500 sccm and DC applied voltage of 6 kV at a gap distance of 12 mm. Through the gradual increment of σ i from 1.8 μ S to 4820 μ S, we observe that the trend in the evolution of SOPS takes place as solid discs, spikes, dots, rings, double rings, and stars. The continuous formation of reactive species onto the liquid anode in all conductive solutions results in a decrease in pH, an increase in bulk liquid temperature, and an increase in total dissolved solutes, and these have been confirmed through experimental measurements. Observations using optical emission spectroscopy show that the electrons at the plasma-liquid interface participate in the reduction of cations followed by their excitation & ionization due to which electron density as well as emissions from excited species (mainly hydroxyl radicals & excited nitrogen) decrease with time. Our investigation provides experimental evidence on the presence of cations at the plasma-liquid interface required for SOP formation.  more » « less
Award ID(s):
2148653
NSF-PAR ID:
10448643
Author(s) / Creator(s):
; ;
Date Published:
Journal Name:
Physica Scripta
Volume:
98
Issue:
9
ISSN:
0031-8949
Page Range / eLocation ID:
095602
Format(s):
Medium: X
Sponsoring Org:
National Science Foundation
More Like this
  1. Abstract The interactions between plasma and liquid solutions give rise to the formation of chemically reactive species useful for many applications, but the mass transport in the interfacial region is usually limited and not fully understood. In this work, we report on the observation and explanation of droplet ejection at the plasma–liquid interface of a one-atmosphere glow discharge with the liquid anode. The impact of droplets emission on plasma properties is also analyzed by spectroscopy. The process, which is an efficient mass and charge transport mechanism, apparently occurs during discharge operation and thus constitutes a feedback vehicle between the discharge and the liquid. Distinctive from the well-known Talyor cone droplets associated with liquid cathodes, the observed droplets originate from the bubbles due to electrolysis and solvated air which does not require strong electric field at liquid surface. Instead, the droplets are ejected by bubble cavity rupture at the plasma–liquid interface and their size, initial speed are strongly dependent on the gravity, inertia and capillarity. The droplets emerge near the plasma attachment and are subsequently vaporized, emitting intense UV and visible light, which originated from excited OH radicals and sodium derived from the liquid electrolyte. Spectroscopy analysis confirmed that the bursting droplets generally reduce the gas temperature while their effects on electron density depend on the composition of the liquid anode. Results also show that droplets from NaCl solution increase the plasma electron density due to the lower ionization potential of sodium. These findings reveal a new mechanism for discharge maintenance and mass transport as well as suggest a simple approach to dispersing plasma-activated liquid into the gas phase and thus enhancing plasma–liquid interaction. 
    more » « less
  2. Abstract

    Aqueous zinc-ion batteries, in terms of integration with high safety, environmental benignity, and low cost, have attracted much attention for powering electronic devices and storage systems. However, the interface instability issues at the Zn anode caused by detrimental side reactions such as dendrite growth, hydrogen evolution, and metal corrosion at the solid (anode)/liquid (electrolyte) interface impede their practical applications in the fields requiring long-term performance persistence. Despite the rapid progress in suppressing the side reactions at the materials interface, the mechanism of ion storage and dendrite formation in practical aqueous zinc-ion batteries with dual-cation aqueous electrolytes is still unclear. Herein, we design an interface material consisting of forest-like three-dimensional zinc-copper alloy with engineered surfaces to explore the Zn plating/stripping mode in dual-cation electrolytes. The three-dimensional nanostructured surface of zinc-copper alloy is demonstrated to be in favor of effectively regulating the reaction kinetics of Zn plating/stripping processes. The developed interface materials suppress the dendrite growth on the anode surface towards high-performance persistent aqueous zinc-ion batteries in the aqueous electrolytes containing single and dual cations. This work remarkably enhances the fundamental understanding of dual-cation intercalation chemistry in aqueous electrochemical systems and provides a guide for exploring high-performance aqueous zinc-ion batteries and beyond.

     
    more » « less
  3. Abstract A self-consistent hybrid model of standing and moving striations was developed for low-current DC discharges in noble gases. We introduced the concept of surface diffusion in phase space (r,u) (where u denotes the electron kinetic energy) described by a tensor diffusion in the nonlocal Fokker-Planck kinetic equation for electrons in the collisional plasma. Electrons diffuse along surfaces of constant total energy ε=u-eφ(r) between energy jumps in inelastic collisions with atoms. Numerical solutions of the 1d1u kinetic equation for electrons were obtained by two methods and coupled to ion transport and Poisson solver. We studied the dynamics of striation formation in Townsend and glow discharges in Argon gas at low discharge currents using a two-level excitation-ionization model and a “full-chemistry” model, which includes stepwise and Penning ionization. Standing striations appeared in Townsend and glow discharges at low currents, and moving striations were obtained for the discharge currents exceeding a critical value. These waves originate at the anode and propagate towards the cathode. We have seen two types of moving striations with the 2-level and full-chemistry models, which resemble the s and p striations previously observed in the experiments. Simulations indicate that processes in the anode region could control moving striations in the positive column plasma. The developed model helps clarify the nature of standing and moving striations in DC discharges of noble gases at low discharge currents and low gas pressures. 
    more » « less
  4. During air or liquid cooling, thermal resistance of the devices is measured precisely from the thermal information at the junction. But existing thermal measurement technologies fall short because of highly transient events such as unstable vortex formation (air cooling) and bubble growth (two-phase liquid cooling). In solving this problem, this paper reports a novel and low-cost thermal mapping technique that can capture highly spatio-temporal temperature evolution at the solid-liquid interface. Essentially, a robust interface is fabricated with CuInS 2 /ZnS Quantum dots (λ peak = 550 nm and 750 nm) trapped inside nanopores (20 nm-30 nm) of a ceramic membrane (50 μm) and/or everyday use paper. It is observed that such nanoconfinement assisted Quantum dots provided sustained thermal photoluminescence coefficient (-0.1 nm/°C) at high number of heating-cooling cycle. This unique yet low cost thermal mapping technique is applied to capture thermal evolution during micro-droplet impingement cooling and hemiwicking flows through anisotropic wicks which showcase commendable spatio-temporal benefits. 
    more » « less
  5. Nonthermal plasmas in contact with liquids have been shown to generate a variety of reactive species capable of initiating reduction–oxidation (redox) reactions at the electrochemically active plasma–liquid interface. In conventional electrochemical cells, selective redox chemistry is achieved by controlling the reduction potential at the solid electrode–electrolyte interface by applying a bias via an external circuit. In the case of plasma–liquid systems, an analogous means of tuning the reduction potential near the interface has not clearly been identified. When treated as a floating surface, the liquid is expected to adopt a net negative charge to balance the flux of hot electrons and relatively cold positive ions. The reduction potential near the plasma–liquid interface is hypothesized to be proportional to the floating potential, which can be approximated using an analytical model provided the plasma parameters are known. Herein, we present a framework for correlating the electron density and electron temperature of a noble gas plasma jet to the reduction potential near the plasma–liquid interface. The plasma parameters were acquired for an argon atmospheric plasma jet in contact with an aqueous solution by means of laser Thomson scattering. The reduction potential was determined using identical reference electrodes to measure the potential difference between the plasma–liquid interface and bulk solution. Interestingly, the measured reduction potentials near the plasma–liquid interface were found to be in good agreement with the model-predicted values determined using the plasma parameters obtained from the Thomson scattering experiments. 
    more » « less