skip to main content

Attention:

The NSF Public Access Repository (NSF-PAR) system and access will be unavailable from 5:00 PM ET until 11:00 PM ET on Friday, June 21 due to maintenance. We apologize for the inconvenience.


This content will become publicly available on August 7, 2024

Title: Influence of liquid conductance on the temporal evolution of self-organization patterns in atmospheric pressure DC glow discharges
Abstract Self-Organized Patterns (SOPs) at plasma-liquid interface in atmospheric pressure plasma discharges refer to the formation of intricate and puzzling structures due to the interplay of electrodynamic and hydrodynamic processes. Studies conducted to date have shown that this phenomenon results in the formation of distinctive patterns such as circular ring, star, gear, dots, spikes, etc., and primarily depends on working gas, electrolyte type, gap distance, current, conductivity, etc. However, an adequate understanding of how these patterns change from one type to another is still not available. This study aims to elucidate the influence of initial liquid conductance ( σ i ) on the temporal evolution of SOPs in liquid-anode discharges. The discharge was generated in a pin-to-liquid anode configuration at a constant helium (He) flow rate of 500 sccm and DC applied voltage of 6 kV at a gap distance of 12 mm. Through the gradual increment of σ i from 1.8 μ S to 4820 μ S, we observe that the trend in the evolution of SOPS takes place as solid discs, spikes, dots, rings, double rings, and stars. The continuous formation of reactive species onto the liquid anode in all conductive solutions results in a decrease in pH, an increase in bulk liquid temperature, and an increase in total dissolved solutes, and these have been confirmed through experimental measurements. Observations using optical emission spectroscopy show that the electrons at the plasma-liquid interface participate in the reduction of cations followed by their excitation & ionization due to which electron density as well as emissions from excited species (mainly hydroxyl radicals & excited nitrogen) decrease with time. Our investigation provides experimental evidence on the presence of cations at the plasma-liquid interface required for SOP formation.  more » « less
Award ID(s):
2148653
NSF-PAR ID:
10448643
Author(s) / Creator(s):
; ;
Date Published:
Journal Name:
Physica Scripta
Volume:
98
Issue:
9
ISSN:
0031-8949
Page Range / eLocation ID:
095602
Format(s):
Medium: X
Sponsoring Org:
National Science Foundation
More Like this
  1. Abstract The interactions between plasma and liquid solutions give rise to the formation of chemically reactive species useful for many applications, but the mass transport in the interfacial region is usually limited and not fully understood. In this work, we report on the observation and explanation of droplet ejection at the plasma–liquid interface of a one-atmosphere glow discharge with the liquid anode. The impact of droplets emission on plasma properties is also analyzed by spectroscopy. The process, which is an efficient mass and charge transport mechanism, apparently occurs during discharge operation and thus constitutes a feedback vehicle between the discharge and the liquid. Distinctive from the well-known Talyor cone droplets associated with liquid cathodes, the observed droplets originate from the bubbles due to electrolysis and solvated air which does not require strong electric field at liquid surface. Instead, the droplets are ejected by bubble cavity rupture at the plasma–liquid interface and their size, initial speed are strongly dependent on the gravity, inertia and capillarity. The droplets emerge near the plasma attachment and are subsequently vaporized, emitting intense UV and visible light, which originated from excited OH radicals and sodium derived from the liquid electrolyte. Spectroscopy analysis confirmed that the bursting droplets generally reduce the gas temperature while their effects on electron density depend on the composition of the liquid anode. Results also show that droplets from NaCl solution increase the plasma electron density due to the lower ionization potential of sodium. These findings reveal a new mechanism for discharge maintenance and mass transport as well as suggest a simple approach to dispersing plasma-activated liquid into the gas phase and thus enhancing plasma–liquid interaction. 
    more » « less
  2. We present optical photometry and spectroscopy of the Type II supernova ASASSN-14jb, together with Very Large Telescope (VLT) Multi Unit Spectroscopic Explorer (MUSE) integral field observations of its host galaxy and a nebular-phase spectrum. This supernova, in the nearby galaxy ESO 467-G051 ( z  = 0.006), was discovered and followed-up by the all-sky automated survey for supernovae (ASAS-SN). We obtained well-sampled las cumbres network (LCOGTN) B V g r i and Swift w 2 m 1 w 1 u b v optical, near-UV/optical light curves, and several optical spectra in the early photospheric phases. The transient ASASSN-14jb exploded ∼2 kpc above the star-forming disk of ESO 467-G051, an edge-on disk galaxy. The large projected distance from the disk of the supernova position and the non-detection of any H II region in a 1.4 kpc radius in projection are in conflict with the standard environment of core-collapse supernova progenitors and suggests the possible scenario that the progenitor received a kick in a binary interaction. We present analysis of the optical light curves and spectra, from which we derived a distance of 25 ± 2 Mpc using state-of-the-art empirical methods for Type II SNe, physical properties of the SN explosion ( 56 Ni mass, explosion energy, and ejected mass), and properties of the progenitor; namely the progenitor radius, mass, and metallicity. Our analysis yields a 56 Ni mass of 0.0210  ±  0.0025  M ⊙ , an explosion energy of ≈0.25 × 10 51 ergs, and an ejected mass of ≈6  M ⊙ . We also constrained the progenitor radius to be R *  = 580  ±  28  R ⊙ which seems to be consistent with the sub-Solar metallicity of 0.3  ±  0.1  Z ⊙ derived from the supernova Fe II λ 5018 line. The nebular spectrum constrains strongly the progenitor mass to be in the range 10–12 M ⊙ . From the Spitzer data archive we detect ASASSN-14jb ≈330 days past explosion and we derived a total dust mass of 10 −4   M ⊙ from the 3.6 μ m and 4.5 μ m photometry. Using the F U V , N U V , B V g r i , K s , 3.6 μ m, and 4.5 μ m total magnitudes for the host galaxy, we fit stellar population synthesis models, which give an estimate of M *  ≈ 1 × 10 9   M ⊙ , an age of 3.2 Gyr, and a SFR ≈0.07  M ⊙ yr −1 . We also discuss the low oxygen abundance of the host galaxy derived from the MUSE data, having an average of 12 + log(O/H) = 8.27 +0.16 −0.20 using the O 3 N 2 diagnostic with strong line methods. We compared it with the supernova spectra, which is also consistent with a sub-Solar metallicity progenitor. Following recent observations of extraplanar H II regions in nearby edge-on galaxies, we derived the metallicity offset from the disk, being positive, but consistent with zero at 2 σ , suggesting enrichment from disk outflows. We finally discuss the possible scenarios for the unusual environment for ASASSN-14jb and conclude that either the in-situ star formation or runaway scenario would imply a low-mass progenitor, agreeing with our estimate from the supernova nebular spectrum. Regardless of the true origin of ASASSN-14jb, we show that the detailed study of the environment roughly agree with the stronger constraints from the observation of the transient. 
    more » « less
  3. Abstract

    Aqueous zinc-ion batteries, in terms of integration with high safety, environmental benignity, and low cost, have attracted much attention for powering electronic devices and storage systems. However, the interface instability issues at the Zn anode caused by detrimental side reactions such as dendrite growth, hydrogen evolution, and metal corrosion at the solid (anode)/liquid (electrolyte) interface impede their practical applications in the fields requiring long-term performance persistence. Despite the rapid progress in suppressing the side reactions at the materials interface, the mechanism of ion storage and dendrite formation in practical aqueous zinc-ion batteries with dual-cation aqueous electrolytes is still unclear. Herein, we design an interface material consisting of forest-like three-dimensional zinc-copper alloy with engineered surfaces to explore the Zn plating/stripping mode in dual-cation electrolytes. The three-dimensional nanostructured surface of zinc-copper alloy is demonstrated to be in favor of effectively regulating the reaction kinetics of Zn plating/stripping processes. The developed interface materials suppress the dendrite growth on the anode surface towards high-performance persistent aqueous zinc-ion batteries in the aqueous electrolytes containing single and dual cations. This work remarkably enhances the fundamental understanding of dual-cation intercalation chemistry in aqueous electrochemical systems and provides a guide for exploring high-performance aqueous zinc-ion batteries and beyond.

     
    more » « less
  4. Abstract A self-consistent hybrid model of standing and moving striations was developed for low-current DC discharges in noble gases. We introduced the concept of surface diffusion in phase space (r,u) (where u denotes the electron kinetic energy) described by a tensor diffusion in the nonlocal Fokker-Planck kinetic equation for electrons in the collisional plasma. Electrons diffuse along surfaces of constant total energy ε=u-eφ(r) between energy jumps in inelastic collisions with atoms. Numerical solutions of the 1d1u kinetic equation for electrons were obtained by two methods and coupled to ion transport and Poisson solver. We studied the dynamics of striation formation in Townsend and glow discharges in Argon gas at low discharge currents using a two-level excitation-ionization model and a “full-chemistry” model, which includes stepwise and Penning ionization. Standing striations appeared in Townsend and glow discharges at low currents, and moving striations were obtained for the discharge currents exceeding a critical value. These waves originate at the anode and propagate towards the cathode. We have seen two types of moving striations with the 2-level and full-chemistry models, which resemble the s and p striations previously observed in the experiments. Simulations indicate that processes in the anode region could control moving striations in the positive column plasma. The developed model helps clarify the nature of standing and moving striations in DC discharges of noble gases at low discharge currents and low gas pressures. 
    more » « less
  5. The effects of downstream plasma exposure with O 2 , N 2 or CF 4 discharges on Si-doped Ga 2 O 3 Schottky diode forward and reverse current-voltage characteristics were investigated. The samples were exposed to discharges with rf power of 50 W plasma at a pressure of 400 mTorr and a fixed treatment time of 1 min to simulate dielectric layer removal, photoresist ashing or surface cleaning steps. Schottky contacts were deposited through a shadow mask after exposure to avoid any changes to the surface. A Schottky barrier height of 1.1 eV was obtained for the reference sample without plasma treatment, with an ideality factor of 1.0. The diodes exposed to CF 4 showed a 0.25 V shift from the I–V of the reference sample due to a Schottky barrier height lowering around 14%. The diodes showed a decrease of Schottky barrier height of 2.5 and 6.5% with O 2 or N 2 treatments, respectively. The effect of plasma exposure on the ideality factor of diodes treated with these plasmas was minimal; 0.2% for O 2 and N 2 , 0.3% for CF 4 , respectively. The reverse leakage currents were 1.2, 2.2 and 4.8 μ A cm −2 for the diodes treated with O 2 , and CF 4 , and N 2 respectively. The effect of downstream plasma treatment on diode on-resistance and on-off ratio were also minimal. The changes observed are much less than caused by exposure to hydrogen-containing plasmas and indicate that downstream plasma stripping of films from Ga 2 O 3 during device processing is a relatively benign approach. 
    more » « less