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Title: Deep phenotyping of cardiac function in heart transplant patients using cardiovascular system models
Key points

Right heart catheterization data from clinical records of heart transplant patients are used to identify patient‐specific models of the cardiovascular system.

These patient‐specific cardiovascular models represent a snapshot of cardiovascular function at a given post‐transplant recovery time point.

This approach is used to describe cardiac function in 10 heart transplant patients, five of which had multiple right heart catheterizations allowing an assessment of cardiac function over time.

These patient‐specific models are used to predict cardiovascular function in the form of right and left ventricular pressure‐volume loops and ventricular power, an important metric in the clinical assessment of cardiac function.

Outcomes for the longitudinally tracked patients show that our approach was able to identify the one patient from the group of five that exhibited post‐transplant cardiovascular complications.


Heart transplant patients are followed with periodic right heart catheterizations (RHCs) to identify post‐transplant complications and guide treatment. Post‐transplant positive outcomes are associated with a steady reduction of right ventricular and pulmonary arterial pressures, toward normal levels of right‐side pressure (about 20 mmHg) measured by RHC. This study shows that more information about patient progression is obtained by combining standard RHC measures with mechanistic computational cardiovascular system models. The purpose of this study is twofold: to understand how cardiovascular system models can be used to represent a patient's cardiovascular state, and to use these models to track post‐transplant recovery and outcome. To obtain reliable parameter estimates comparable within and across datasets, we use sensitivity analysis, parameter subset selection, and optimization to determine patient‐specific mechanistic parameters that can be reliably extracted from the RHC data. Patient‐specific models are identified for 10 patients from their first post‐transplant RHC, and longitudinal analysis is carried out for five patients. Results of the sensitivity analysis and subset selection show that we can reliably estimate seven non‐measurable quantities; namely, ventricular diastolic relaxation, systemic resistance, pulmonary venous elastance, pulmonary resistance, pulmonary arterial elastance, pulmonary valve resistance and systemic arterial elastance. Changes in parameters and predicted cardiovascular function post‐transplant are used to evaluate the cardiovascular state during recovery of five patients. Of these five patients, only one showed inconsistent trends during recovery in ventricular pressure–volume relationships and power output. At the four‐year post‐transplant time point this patient exhibited biventricular failure along with graft dysfunction while the remaining four exhibited no cardiovascular complications.

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Author(s) / Creator(s):
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Publisher / Repository:
Date Published:
Journal Name:
The Journal of Physiology
Page Range / eLocation ID:
p. 3203-3222
Medium: X
Sponsoring Org:
National Science Foundation
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