Ferroelectric memristors represent a promising new generation of devices that have a wide range of applications in memory, digital information processing, and neuromorphic computing. Recently, van der Waals ferroelectric In2Se3with unique interlinked out‐of‐plane and in‐plane polarizations has enabled multidirectional resistance switching, providing unprecedented flexibility in planar and vertical device integrations. However, the operating mechanisms of these devices have remained unclear. Here, through the demonstration of van der Waals In2Se3‐based planar ferroelectric memristors with the device resistance continuously tunable over three orders of magnitude, and by correlating device resistance states, ferroelectric domain configurations, and surface electric potential, the studies reveal that the resistive switching is controlled by the multidomain formations and the associated energy barriers between domains, as opposed to the commonly assumed Schottky barrier modulations at the metal‐ferroelectric interface. The findings reveal new device physics through elucidating the microscopic operating mechanisms of this new generation of devices, and provide a critical guide for future device development and integration efforts.
Memristors with excellent scalability have the potential to revolutionize not only the field of information storage but also neuromorphic computing. Conventional metal oxides are widely used as resistive switching materials in memristors. Interface‐type memristors based on ferroelectric materials are emerging as alternatives in the development of high‐performance memory devices. A clear understanding of the switching mechanisms in this type of memristors, however, is still in its early stages. By comparing the bipolar switching in different systems, it is found that the switchable diode effect in ferroelectric memristors is controlled by polarization modulated Schottky barrier height and polarization coupled interfacial deep states trapping/detrapping. Using semiconductor theories with consideration of polarization effects, a phenomenological theory is developed to explain the current–voltage behavior at the metal/ferroelectric interface. These findings reveal the critical role of the interaction among polarization charges, interfacial defects, and Schottky interface in controlling ferroelectric resistive switching and offer the guidance to design ferroelectric memristors with enhanced performance.more » « less
- NSF-PAR ID:
- Publisher / Repository:
- Wiley Blackwell (John Wiley & Sons)
- Date Published:
- Journal Name:
- Advanced Functional Materials
- Medium: X
- Sponsoring Org:
- National Science Foundation
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Interface‐type (IT) resistive switching (RS) memories are promising for next generation memory and computing technologies owing to the filament‐free switching, high on/off ratio, low power consumption, and low spatial variability. Although the switching mechanisms of memristors have been widely studied in filament‐type devices, they are largely unknown in IT memristors. In this work, using the simple Au/Nb:SrTiO3(Nb:STO) as a model Schottky system, it is identified that protons from moisture are key element in determining the RS characteristics in IT memristors. The Au/Nb:STO devices show typical Schottky interface controlled current–voltage (
I– V) curves with a large on/off ratio under ambient conditions. Surprisingly, in a controlled environment without protons/moisture, the large I– Vhysteresis collapses with the disappearance of a high resistance state (HRS) and the Schottky barrier. Once the devices are re‐exposed to a humid environment, the typical large I– Vhysteresis can be recovered within hours as the HRS and Schottky interface are restored. The RS mechanism in Au/Nb:STO is attributed to the Schottky barrier modulation by a proton assisted electron trapping and detrapping process. This work highlights the important role of protons/moisture in the RS properties of IT memristors and provides fundamental insight for switching mechanisms in metal oxides‐based memory devices.
Interface‐type (IT) metal/oxide Schottky memristive devices have attracted considerable attention over filament‐type (FT) devices for neuromorphic computing because of their uniform, filament‐free, and analog resistive switching (RS) characteristics. The most recent IT devices are based on oxygen ions and vacancies movement to alter interfacial Schottky barrier parameters and thereby control RS properties. However, the reliability and stability of these devices have been significantly affected by the undesired diffusion of ionic species. Herein, a reliable interface‐dominated memristive device is demonstrated using a simple Au/Nb‐doped SrTiO3(Nb:STO) Schottky structure. The Au/Nb:STO Schottky barrier modulation by charge trapping and detrapping is responsible for the analog resistive switching characteristics. Because of its interface‐controlled RS, the proposed device shows low device‐to‐device, cell‐to‐cell, and cycle‐to‐cycle variability while maintaining high repeatability and stability during endurance and retention tests. Furthermore, the Au/Nb:STO IT memristive device exhibits versatile synaptic functions with an excellent uniformity, programmability, and reliability. A simulated artificial neural network with Au/Nb:STO synapses achieves a high recognition accuracy of 94.72% for large digit recognition from MNIST database. These results suggest that IT resistive switching can be potentially used for artificial synapses to build next‐generation neuromorphic computing.
Ferroelectric materials exhibit spontaneous polarization that can be switched by electric field. Beyond traditional applications as nonvolatile capacitive elements, the interplay between polarization and electronic transport in ferroelectric thin films has enabled a path to neuromorphic device applications involving resistive switching. A fundamental challenge, however, is that finite electronic conductivity may introduce considerable power dissipation and perhaps destabilize ferroelectricity itself. Here, tunable microwave frequency electronic response of domain walls injected into ferroelectric lead zirconate titanate (PbZr0.2Ti0.8O3) on the level of a single nanodomain is revealed. Tunable microwave response is detected through first‐order reversal curve spectroscopy combined with scanning microwave impedance microscopy measurements taken near 3 GHz. Contributions of film interfaces to the measured AC conduction through subtractive milling, where the film exhibited improved conduction properties after removal of surface layers, are investigated. Using statistical analysis and finite element modeling, we inferred that the mechanism of tunable microwave conductance is the variable area of the domain wall in the switching volume. These observations open the possibilities for ferroelectric memristors or volatile resistive switches, localized to several tens of nanometers and operating according to well‐defined dynamics under an applied field.
null (Ed.)Here, in ionically conducting Na 0.5 Bi 0.5 TiO 3 (NBT), we explore the link between growth parameters, stoichiometry and resistive switching behavior and show NBT to be a highly tunable system. We show that the combination of oxygen ionic vacancies and low-level electronic conduction is important for controlling Schottky barrier interfacial switching. We achieve a large ON/OFF ratio for high resistance/low resistance ( R HRS / R LRS ), enabled by an almost constant R HRS of ∼10 9 Ω, and composition-tunable R LRS value modulated by growth temperature. R HRS / R LRS ratios of up to 10 4 and pronounced resistive switching at low voltages (SET voltage of <1.2 V without high-voltage electroforming), strong endurance (no change in resistance states after several 10 3 cycles), uniformity, stable switching and fast switching speed are achieved. Of particular interest is that the best performance is achieved at the lowest growth temperature studied (600 °C), which is opposite to the case of most other perovskite oxides for memristors, where higher growth temperatures are required for optimum performance. This is understood based on the oxygen vacancy control of interfacial switching in NBT, whereas a range of other mechanisms (including filamentary switching) occur in other perovskites. The study of NBT has enabled us to determine key parameters for achieving high performance memristors.more » « less