The ability to control the density and spatial distribution of substitutional dopants in semiconductors is crucial for achieving desired physicochemical properties. Substitutional doping with adjustable doping levels has been previously demonstrated in 2D transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDs); however, the spatial control of dopant distribution remains an open field. In this work, edge termination is demonstrated as an important characteristic of 2D TMD monocrystals that affects the distribution of substitutional dopants. Particularly, in chemical vapor deposition (CVD)‐grown monolayer WS2, it is found that a higher density of transition metal dopants is always incorporated in sulfur‐terminated domains when compared to tungsten‐terminated domains. Two representative examples demonstrate this spatial distribution control, including hexagonal iron‐ and vanadium‐doped WS2monolayers. Density functional theory (DFT) calculations are further performed, indicating that the edge‐dependent dopant distribution is due to a strong binding of tungsten atoms at tungsten‐zigzag edges, resulting in the formation of open sites at sulfur‐zigzag edges that enable preferential dopant incorporation. Based on these results, it is envisioned that edge termination in crystalline TMD monolayers can be utilized as a novel and effective knob for engineering the spatial distribution of substitutional dopants, leading to in‐plane hetero‐/multi‐junctions that display fascinating electronic, optoelectronic, and magnetic properties.
Dilute magnetic semiconductors (DMS), achieved through substitutional doping of spin‐polarized transition metals into semiconducting systems, enable experimental modulation of spin dynamics in ways that hold great promise for novel magneto–electric or magneto–optical devices, especially for two‐dimensional (2D) systems such as transition metal dichalcogenides that accentuate interactions and activate valley degrees of freedom. Practical applications of 2D magnetism will likely require room‐temperature operation, air stability, and (for magnetic semiconductors) the ability to achieve optimal doping levels without dopant aggregation. Here, room‐temperature ferromagnetic order obtained in semiconducting vanadium‐doped tungsten disulfide monolayers produced by a reliable single‐step film sulfidation method across an exceptionally wide range of vanadium concentrations, up to 12 at% with minimal dopant aggregation, is described. These monolayers develop p‐type transport as a function of vanadium incorporation and rapidly reach ambipolarity. Ferromagnetism peaks at an intermediate vanadium concentration of ~2 at% and decreases for higher concentrations, which is consistent with quenching due to orbital hybridization at closer vanadium–vanadium spacings, as supported by transmission electron microscopy, magnetometry, and first‐principles calculations. Room‐temperature 2D‐DMS provide a new component to expand the functional scope of van der Waals heterostructures and bring semiconducting magnetic 2D heterostructures into the realm of practical application.more » « less
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- Author(s) / Creator(s):
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- Wiley Blackwell (John Wiley & Sons)
- Date Published:
- Journal Name:
- Advanced Science
- Medium: X
- Sponsoring Org:
- National Science Foundation
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