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Title: Uneven crystallization of lead halide perovskite in the carbon-electrode based, low-temperature mesoscopic perovskite solar cells
Crystallization of perovskite is monitored in carbon-electrode based, low-temperature, mesoscopic perovskite solar cells. Crystallographic and morphological properties of the perovskite are examined through changes in the film thickness of carbon-electrode or the volume of perovskite precursor. It is observed that, when a relatively thin carbon-electrode or large volume of perovskite precursor is used, perovskite crystallites mainly form on the device surface, leaving the bottom part of the device un-wetted. However, if a thicker carbon-electrode or less perovskite precursor is used, crystallization could be seen in the whole porous skeleton, and relative uniform distribution of perovskite crystallites is achieved. As such, uneven crystallization is observed. Such behavior is due to solvent evaporation on the surface, which facilitates nucleation processes on the surface, while retards crystallization on the bottom due to the Ostwald ripening effect. Charge transfer/recombination processes and photo-to-electric power conversion properties are studied. As expected, uneven crystallization results in retarded charge transfer and increased risk of recombination, and poor power conversion efficiency, for example, ∼3%. In contrast, uniform crystallization accelerates charge transfer and reduces recombination risk, and increases the efficiency to higher than 11% (AM1.5G, 100 mW/cm2).  more » « less
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Journal of Applied Physics
Medium: X
Sponsoring Org:
National Science Foundation
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