skip to main content


Title: Improved Crystallization of Lead Halide Perovskite in Two‐Step Growth Method by Polymer‐Assisted “Slow‐Release Effect”
Abstract Fast reaction between organic salt and lead iodide always leads to small perovskite crystallites and concentrated defects. Here, polyacrylic acid is blended with organic salt, so as to regulate the crystallization in a two‐step growth method. It is observed that addition of polyacrylic acid retards aggregation and crystallization behavior of the organic salt, and slows down the reaction rate between organic salt and PbI 2 , by which “slow‐release effect” is defined. Such effect improves crystallization of perovskite. X‐ray diffraction study shows that, after addition of 2 m m polyacrylic acid, average crystallite size of perovskite increases from ≈40 to ≈90 nm, meanwhile, grain size increases. Thermal admittance spectroscopy study shows that trap density is reduced by nearly one order (especially for deep energy levels). Due to the improved crystallization and reduced trap density, charge recombination is obviously reduced, while lifetime of charge carriers in perovskite film and devices are prolonged, according to time‐resolved photoluminescence and transient photo‐voltage decay curve tests, respectively. Accordingly, power conversion efficiency of the device is promoted from 19.96 (±0.41)% to 21.84 (±0.25)% (with a champion efficiency of 22.31%), and further elevated to 24.19% after surface modification by octylammonium iodide.  more » « less
Award ID(s):
1903962
NSF-PAR ID:
10466084
Author(s) / Creator(s):
; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ;
Date Published:
Journal Name:
Small Methods
Volume:
7
Issue:
4
ISSN:
2366-9608
Format(s):
Medium: X
Sponsoring Org:
National Science Foundation
More Like this
  1. Additive engineering is a common strategy to improve the performance and stability of metal halide perovskite through the modulation of crystallization kinetics and passivation of surface defects. However, much of this work has lacked a systematic approach necessary to understand how the functionality and molecular structure of the additives influence perovskite performance and stability. This paper describes the inclusion of low concentrations of 5-aminovaleric acid (5-AVA) and its ammonium acid derivatives, 5-ammoniumvaleric acid iodide (5-AVAI) and 5-ammoniumvaleric acid chloride (5-AVACl), into the precursor inks for methylammonium lead triiodide (MAPbI3) perovskite and highlights the important role of halides in affecting the interactions of additives with perovskite and film properties. The film quality, as determined by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and photoluminescence (PL) spectrophotometry, is shown to improve with the inclusion of all additives, but an increase in annealing time from 5 to 30 min is necessary. We observe an increase in grain size and a decrease in film roughness with the incorporation of 5-AVAI and 5-AVACl with scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). Critically, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) measurements and density functional theory (DFT) calculations show that 5-AVAI and 5-AVACl preferentially interact with MAPbI3 surfaces via the ammonium functional group, while 5-AVA will interact with either amino or carboxylic acid functional groups. Charge localization analysis shows the surprising result that HCl dissociates from 5-AVACl in vacuum, resulting in the decomposition of the ammonium acid to 5-AVA. We show that device repeatability is improved with the inclusion of all additives and that 5-AVACl increases the power conversion efficiency of devices from 17.61 ± 1.07 to 18.07 ± 0.42%. Finally, we show stability improvements for unencapsulated devices exposed to 50% relative humidity, with devices incorporating 5-AVAI and 5-AVACl exhibiting the greatest improvements. 
    more » « less
  2. Capsaicin is used to modify SnO 2 quantum dots and then used as an electron-transfer material for perovskite solar cells. After capsaicin modification, the power conversion efficiency of the devices increases from 19.90 (± 0.47)% to 21.87 (± 0.28)% with a champion device of 22.24% (AM 1.5G, 100 mW/cm 2 ). Transient photovoltage and photocurrent decay show that, after the capsaicin doping, the lifetime increases from 21.55 (± 1.54) to 27.63 (± 1.45)  μs, while the charge extraction time reduces from 1.90 (± 0.09) to 1.67 (± 0.06)  μs. Time-resolved photoluminescence and impedance spectrum studies show similar results. The accelerated charge transfer and retarded recombination are due to defect passivation. Space charge limited current study shows that, after modification, the trap density of devices is reduced from 2.24 × 10 15 to 1.28 × 10 15  cm −3 . X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and theoretical calculation indicate that the reduced trap density is due to the chemical interaction between carbonyl group (from capsaicin) and Sn atom, and that between carbonyl group and Pb atom. 
    more » « less
  3. Abstract

    In recent years, hybrid perovskite solar cells (HPSCs) have received considerable research attention due to their impressive photovoltaic performance and low‐temperature solution processing capability. However, there remain challenges related to defect passivation and enhancing the charge carrier dynamics of the perovskites, to further increase the power conversion efficiency of HPSCs. In this work, the use of a novel material, phenylhydrazinium iodide (PHAI), as an additive in MAPbI3perovskite for defect minimization and enhancement of the charge carrier dynamics of inverted HPSCs is reported. Incorporation of the PHAI in perovskite precursor solution facilitates controlled crystallization, higher carrier lifetime, as well as less recombination. In addition, PHAI additive treated HPSCs exhibit lower density of filled trap states (1010cm−2) in perovskite grain boundaries, higher charge carrier mobility (≈11 × 10−4cm2V−1s), and enhanced power conversion efficiency (≈18%) that corresponds to a ≈20% improvement in comparison to the pristine devices.

     
    more » « less
  4. Abstract

    Inorganic CsPbIBr2perovskites have recently attracted enormous attention as a viable alternative material for optoelectronic applications due to their higher efficiency, thermal stability, suitable bandgap, and proper optical absorption. However, the CsPbIBr2perovskite films fabricated using a one-step deposition technique is usually comprised of small grain size with a large number of grain boundaries and compositional defects. In this work, silver iodide (AgI) will be incorporated as an additive into the CsPbIBr2perovskite precursor solution to prepare the unique perovskite CsI(PbBr2)1-x(AgI)x.The AgI additive in the precursor solution works as a nucleation promoter which will help the perovskite to grow and merge into a continuous film with reduced defects. With detailed characterizations, we found that incorporating AgI additive resulted in a uniform perovskite film with fewer grain boundaries, increased grain size, crystallinity, optical absorption while decreasing carrier recombination and trap density. Using the AgI in an optimum amount, we fabricated CsPbIBr2perovskite solar cells (PSCs) with a simple structure and achieved a power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 7.2% with a reduced hysteresis index. This work offers an alternative approach towards preparing high-quality CsPbIBr2perovskite films for solar cells with higher stability and other optoelectronic applications.

     
    more » « less
  5. Solvents employed in the solution processing of metal halide perovskites are known to play a key role in defining the morphology and properties of the resulting thin film, and thus the performance of perovskite solar cell devices. Accurate metrics are needed that are capable of differentiating among candidates, finding solvents that adequately solubilize the various precursor species in solution and facilitate the nucleation and growth of these materials. Existing metrics such as the unsaturated Mayer bond order (UMBO) and the Gutmann donor number (DN) have been tested for lead iodide perovskite systems; but there has yet to be a comprehensive study on their transferability to lead-free perovskite solutions. We use ab initio methods (density functional theory) and regression analysis tools to study the usefulness of DN and BF 3 affinity scales in this regard. We compared the relative effectiveness of these scales to describe interactions between solvents and BX n perovskite salts of lead (Pb 2+ ), tin (Sn 2+ and Sn 4+ ), germanium (Ge 2+ ), bismuth (Bi 3+ ), and antimony (Sb 3+ and Sb 5+ ). The DN proved to be a better representation than the BF 3 of such interactions, reflecting the closer similarity of these species to the “parent” SbCl 5 Lewis acid than to BF 3 . In addition, we have uncovered the usefulness of the lithium cation affinity metric (LCA) to describe the strength of interactions between solvents and A-site cations ( e.g. Na + , K + , Rb + and Cs + ) in all-inorganic metal halide perovskite solutions. We find that the coordination strengths of solvents towards species in all-inorganic metal halide perovskite solutions are best described by two different metrics with distinct modes of action: DN differentiates among BX n salt complexes, and LCA among A-site cation species. This revelation can help guide the choice of solvent to optimize processing conditions. It also emphasizes the importance of selecting solvents whose DN and LCA optimize coordination to key Lewis acid species in all-inorganic perovskite solutions. 
    more » « less