skip to main content

This content will become publicly available on December 1, 2024

Title: Marginal dynamics of interacting diffusions on unimodular Galton–Watson trees
Consider a system of homogeneous interacting diffusive particles labeled by the nodes of a unimodular Galton–Watson tree, where the state of each node evolves infinitesi- mally like a d-dimensional diffusion whose drift coefficient depends on (the histories of) its own state and the states of neighboring nodes, and whose diffusion coefficient depends only on (the history of) its own state. Under suitable regularity assumptions on the coefficients, an autonomous characterization is obtained for the marginal dis- tribution of the dynamics of the neighborhood of a typical node in terms of a certain local equation, which is a new kind of stochastic differential equation that is nonlinear in the sense of McKean. This equation describes a finite-dimensional non-Markovian stochastic process whose infinitesimal evolution at any time depends not only on the structure and current state of the neighborhood, but also on the conditional law of the current state given the past of the states of neighborhing nodes until that time. Such marginal distributions are of interest because they arise as weak limits of both marginal distributions and empirical measures of interacting diffusions on many sequences of sparse random graphs, including the configuration model and Erdös–Rényi graphs whose average degrees converge to a finite non-zero limit. The results obtained complement classical results in the mean-field regime, which characterize the limiting dynamics of homogeneous interacting diffusions on complete graphs, as the num- ber of nodes goes to infinity, in terms of a corresponding nonlinear Markov process. However, in the sparse graph setting, the topology of the graph strongly influences the dynamics, and the analysis requires a completely different approach. The proofs of existence and uniqueness of the local equation rely on delicate new conditional independence and symmetry properties of particle trajectories on unimodular Galton– Watson trees, as well as judicious use of changes of measure.  more » « less
Award ID(s):
Author(s) / Creator(s):
; ;
Publisher / Repository:
Date Published:
Journal Name:
Probability Theory and Related Fields
Page Range / eLocation ID:
817 to 884
Subject(s) / Keyword(s):
Interacting diffusions · Sparse graphs · Random graphs · Local weak convergence · Mean-field limits · Nonlinear Markov processes · Erdo ̋s–Rényi graphs · Configuration model · Unimodularity · Markov random fields
Medium: X
Sponsoring Org:
National Science Foundation
More Like this
  1. In social network, a person located at the periphery region (marginal node) is likely to be treated unfairly when compared with the persons at the center. While existing fairness works on graphs mainly focus on protecting sensitive attributes (e.g., age and gender), the fairness incurred by the graph structure should also be given attention. On the other hand, the information aggregation mechanism of graph neural networks amplifies such structure unfairness, as marginal nodes are often far away from other nodes. In this paper, we focus on novel fairness incurred by the graph structure on graph neural networks, named structure fairness. Specifically, we first analyzed multiple graphs and observed that marginal nodes in graphs have a worse performance of downstream tasks than others in graph neural networks. Motivated by the observation, we propose Structural Fair Graph Neural Network (SFairGNN), which combines neighborhood expansion based structure debiasing with hop-aware attentive information aggregation to achieve structure fairness. Our experiments show SFairGNN can significantly improve structure fairness while maintaining overall performance in the downstream tasks. 
    more » « less
  2. Abstract We define a bridge node to be a node whose neighbor nodes are sparsely connected to each other and are likely to be part of different components if the node is removed from the network. We propose a computationally light neighborhood-based bridge node centrality (NBNC) tuple that could be used to identify the bridge nodes of a network as well as rank the nodes in a network on the basis of their topological position to function as bridge nodes. The NBNC tuple for a node is asynchronously computed on the basis of the neighborhood graph of the node that comprises of the neighbors of the node as vertices and the links connecting the neighbors as edges. The NBNC tuple for a node has three entries: the number of components in the neighborhood graph of the node, the algebraic connectivity ratio of the neighborhood graph of the node and the number of neighbors of the node. We analyze a suite of 60 complex real-world networks and evaluate the computational lightness, effectiveness, efficiency/accuracy and uniqueness of the NBNC tuple vis-a-vis the existing bridgeness related centrality metrics and the Louvain community detection algorithm. 
    more » « less
  3. Recent progress in the study of the contact process (see Shankar Bhamidi, Danny Nam, Oanh Nguyen, and Allan Sly [Ann. Probab. 49 (2021), pp. 244–286]) has verified that the extinction-survival threshold λ 1 \lambda _1 on a Galton-Watson tree is strictly positive if and only if the offspring distribution ξ \xi has an exponential tail. In this paper, we derive the first-order asymptotics of λ 1 \lambda _1 for the contact process on Galton-Watson trees and its corresponding analog for random graphs. In particular, if ξ \xi is appropriately concentrated around its mean, we demonstrate that λ 1 ( ξ ) ∼ 1 / E ξ \lambda _1(\xi ) \sim 1/\mathbb {E} \xi as E ξ → ∞ \mathbb {E}\xi \rightarrow \infty , which matches with the known asymptotics on d d -regular trees. The same results for the short-long survival threshold on the Erdős-Rényi and other random graphs are shown as well. 
    more » « less

    We propose a theoretical modelling framework for earthquake occurrence and clustering based on a family of invariant Galton–Watson (IGW) stochastic branching processes. The IGW process is a rigorously defined approximation to imprecisely observed or incorrectly estimated earthquake clusters modelled by Galton–Watson branching processes, including the Epidemic Type Aftershock Sequence (ETAS) model. The theory of IGW processes yields explicit distributions for multiple cluster attributes, including magnitude-dependent and magnitude-independent offspring number, cluster size and cluster combinatorial depth. Analysis of the observed seismicity in southern California demonstrates that the IGW model provides a close fit to the observed earthquake clusters. The estimated IGW parameters and derived statistics are robust with respect to the catalogue lower cut-off magnitude. The proposed model facilitates analyses of multiple quantities of seismicity based on self-similar tree attributes, and may be used to assess the proximity of seismicity to criticality.

    more » « less
  5. Given a sequence of possibly correlated randomly generated graphs, we address the problem of detecting changes on their underlying distribution. To this end, we will consider Random Dot Product Graphs (RDPGs), a simple yet rich family of random graphs that subsume Erdös-Rényi and Stochastic Block Model ensembles as particular cases. In RDPGs each node has an associated latent vector and inner products between these vectors dictate the edge existence probabilities. Previous works have mostly focused on the undirected and unweighted graph case, a gap we aim to close here. We first extend the RDPG model to accommodate directed and weighted graphs, a contribution whose interest transcends change-point detection (CPD). A statistic derived from the nodes' estimated latent vectors (i.e., embeddings) facilitates adoption of scalable geometric CPD techniques. The resulting algorithm yields interpretable results and facilitates pinpointing which (and when) nodes are acting differently. Numerical tests on simulated data as well as on a real dataset of graphs stemming from a Wi-Fi network corroborate the effectiveness of the proposed CPD method. 
    more » « less