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Title: Hyperfine group ratio: a recipe for deriving kinetic temperature from the ammonia inversion lines
Although ammonia is a widely used interstellar thermometer, the estimation of its rotational and kinetic temperatures can be affected by the blended hyperfine components (HFCs). We have developed a new recipe, referred to as the hyperfine group ratio (HFGR), which utilizes only direct observables, namely the intensity ratios between the grouped HFCs. As tested on the model spectra, the empirical formulae in the HFGR can derive the rotational temperature (Trot) from the HFC group ratios in an unambiguous manner. We compared the HFGR with two other classical methods, intensity ratio and hyperfine fitting, based on both simulated spectra and real data. The HFGR has three major improvements. First, it does not require modelling the HFC or fitting the line profiles, so it is more robust against the effect of HFC blending. Second, the simulation-enabled empirical formulae are much faster than fitting the spectra over the parameter space, so both computer time and human time can be saved. Third, the statistical uncertainty of the temperature ΔTrot as a function of the signal-to-noise ratio (S/N) is a natural product of the HFGR recipe. The internal error of the HFGR is ΔTrot ≤ 0.5 K over a broad parameter space of rotational temperature (10-60 K), linewidth (0.3-4 km s-1) and optical depth (0-5). When there is spectral noise, the HFGR can also maintain a reasonable uncertainty level at ΔTrot ≤ 1.0 K when S/N > 4.  more » « less
Award ID(s):
1909097
NSF-PAR ID:
10479153
Author(s) / Creator(s):
; ; ; ; ;
Publisher / Repository:
Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society
Date Published:
Journal Name:
Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society
Volume:
499
Issue:
3
ISSN:
0035-8711
Page Range / eLocation ID:
4432 to 4444
Format(s):
Medium: X
Sponsoring Org:
National Science Foundation
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