skip to main content


Title: How to learn collaboratively - Federated learning to peer-to-peer learning and what's at stake.
Standard ML relies on training using a centrally collected dataset, while collaborative learning techniques such as Federated Learning (FL) enable data to remain decentralized at client locations. In FL, a central server coordinates the training process, reducing computation and communication expenses for clients. However, this centralization can lead to server congestion and heightened risk of malicious activity or data privacy breaches. In contrast, Peer-to-Peer Learning (P2PL) is a fully decentralized system where nodes manage both local training and aggregation tasks. While P2PL promotes privacy by eliminating the need to trust a single node, it also results in increased computation and communication costs, along with potential difficulties in achieving consensus among nodes. To address the limitations of both FL and P2PL, we propose a hybrid approach called Hubs-and-Spokes Learning (HSL). In HSL, hubs function similarly to FL servers, maintaining consensus but exerting less control over spokes. This paper argues that HSL’s design allows for greater availability and privacy than FL, while reducing computation and communication costs compared to P2PL. Additionally, HSL maintains consensus and integrity in the learning process.  more » « less
Award ID(s):
2146449
NSF-PAR ID:
10492608
Author(s) / Creator(s):
; ; ; ; ;
Publisher / Repository:
IEEE/IFIP
Date Published:
Journal Name:
53rd Annual IEEE/IFIP International Conference on Dependable Systems and Networks (DSN), “Disrupt 23: Disruptive Ideas and New Interdisciplinary Results” Track
Subject(s) / Keyword(s):
Federated learning, peer-to-peer learning, mixing matrix, gossip learning, availability, integrity, privacy.
Format(s):
Medium: X
Sponsoring Org:
National Science Foundation
More Like this
  1. Federated Learning (FL) has emerged as an effective paradigm for distributed learning systems owing to its strong potential in exploiting underlying data characteristics while preserving data privacy. In cases of practical data heterogeneity among FL clients in many Internet-of-Things (IoT) applications over wireless networks, however, existing FL frameworks still face challenges in capturing the overall feature properties of local client data that often exhibit disparate distributions. One approach is to apply generative adversarial networks (GANs) in FL to address data heterogeneity by integrating GANs to regenerate anonymous training data without exposing original client data to possible eavesdropping. Despite some successes, existing GAN-based FL frameworks still incur high communication costs and elicit other privacy concerns, limiting their practical applications. To this end, this work proposes a novel FL framework that only applies partial GAN model sharing. This new PS-FedGAN framework effectively addresses heterogeneous data distributions across clients and strengthens privacy preservation at reduced communication costs, especially over wireless networks. Our analysis demonstrates the convergence and privacy benefits of the proposed PS-FEdGAN framework. Through experimental results based on several well-known benchmark datasets, our proposed PS-FedGAN demonstrates strong potential to tackle FL under heterogeneous (non-IID) client data distributions, while improving data privacy and lowering communication overhead. 
    more » « less
  2. This work considers the problem of Distributed Mean Estimation (DME) over networks with intermittent connectivity, where the goal is to learn a global statistic over the data samples localized across distributed nodes with the help of a central server. To mitigate the impact of intermittent links, nodes can collaborate with their neighbors to compute local consensus which they forward to the central server. In such a setup, the communications between any pair of nodes must satisfy local differential privacy constraints. We study the tradeoff between collaborative relaying and privacy leakage due to the additional data sharing among nodes and, subsequently, propose a novel differentially private collaborative algorithm for DME to achieve the optimal tradeoff. Finally, we present numerical simulations to substantiate our theoretical findings. 
    more » « less
  3. The conventional machine learning (ML) and deep learning (DL) methods use large amount of data to construct desirable prediction models in a central fusion center for recognizing human activities. However, such model training encounters high communication costs and leads to privacy infringement. To address the issues of high communication overhead and privacy leakage, we employed a widely popular distributed ML technique called Federated Learning (FL) that generates a global model for predicting human activities by combining participated agents’ local knowledge. The state-of-the-art FL model fails to maintain acceptable accuracy when there is a large number of unreliable agents who can infuse false model, or, resource-constrained agents that fails to perform an assigned computational task within a given time window. We developed an FL model for predicting human activities by monitoring agent’s contributions towards model convergence and avoiding the unreliable and resource-constrained agents from training. We assign a score to each client when it joins in a network and the score is updated based on the agent’s activities during training. We consider three mobile robots as FL clients that are heterogeneous in terms of their resources such as processing capability, memory, bandwidth, battery-life and data volume. We consider heterogeneous mobile robots for understanding the effects of real-world FL setting in presence of resource-constrained agents. We consider an agent unreliable if it repeatedly gives slow response or infuses incorrect models during training. By disregarding the unreliable and weak agents, we carry-out the local training of the FL process on selected agents. If somehow, a weak agent is selected and started showing straggler issues, we leverage asynchronous FL mechanism that aggregate the local models whenever it receives a model update from the agents. Asynchronous FL eliminates the issue of waiting for a long time to receive model updates from the weak agents. To the end, we simulate how we can track the behavior of the agents through a reward-punishment scheme and present the influence of unreliable and resource-constrained agents in the FL process. We found that FL performs slightly worse than centralized models, if there is no unreliable and resource-constrained agent. However, as the number of malicious and straggler clients increases, our proposed model performs more effectively by identifying and avoiding those agents while recognizing human activities as compared to the stateof-the-art FL and ML approaches. 
    more » « less
  4. null (Ed.)
    Federated learning (FL) is a highly pursued machine learning technique that can train a model centrally while keeping data distributed. Distributed computation makes FL attractive for bandwidth limited applications especially in wireless communications. There can be a large number of distributed edge devices connected to a central parameter server (PS) and iteratively download/upload data from/to the PS. Due to limited bandwidth, only a subset of connected devices can be scheduled in each round. There are usually millions of parameters in the state-of-art machine learning models such as deep learning, resulting in a high computation complexity as well as a high communication burden on collecting/distributing data for training. To improve communication efficiency and make the training model converge faster, we propose a new scheduling policy and power allocation scheme using non-orthogonal multiple access (NOMA) settings to maximize the weighted sum data rate under practical constraints during the entire learning process. NOMA allows multiple users to transmit on the same channel simultaneously. The user scheduling problem is transformed into a maximum-weight independent set problem that can be solved using graph theory. Simulation results show that the proposed scheduling and power allocation scheme can help achieve a higher FL testing accuracy in NOMA based wireless networks than other existing schemes within the same learning time. 
    more » « less
  5. Mass data generation occurring in the Internet- of-Things (IoT) requires processing to extract meaningful in- formation. Deep learning is commonly used to perform such processing. However, due to the sensitive nature of these data, it is important to consider data privacy. As such, federated learning (FL) has been proposed to address this issue. FL pushes training to the client devices and tasks a central server with aggregating collected model weights to update a global model. However, the transmission of these model weights can be costly, gradually. The trade-off between communicating model weights for aggregation and the loss provided by the global model remains an open problem. In this work, we cast this trade-off problem of client selection in FL as an optimization problem. We then design a Distributed Client Selection (DCS) algorithm that allows client devices to decide to participate in aggregation in hopes of minimizing overall communication cost — while maintaining low loss. We evaluate the performance of our proposed client selection algorithm against standard FL and a state-of-the-art client selection algorithm, called Power-of-Choice (PoC), using CIFAR-10, FMNIST, and MNIST datasets. Our experimental results confirm that our DCS algorithm is able to closely match the loss provided by the standard FL and PoC, while on average reducing the overall communication cost by nearly 32.67% and 44.71% in comparison to standard FL and PoC, respectively. 
    more » « less