skip to main content

Attention:

The NSF Public Access Repository (NSF-PAR) system and access will be unavailable from 11:00 PM ET on Thursday, May 23 until 2:00 AM ET on Friday, May 24 due to maintenance. We apologize for the inconvenience.


This content will become publicly available on January 1, 2025

Title: Improved Modeling of Gross Primary Production and Transpiration of Sugarcane Plantations with Time-Series Landsat and Sentinel-2 Images

Sugarcane croplands account for ~70% of global sugar production and ~60% of global ethanol production. Monitoring and predicting gross primary production (GPP) and transpiration (T) in these fields is crucial to improve crop yield estimation and management. While moderate-spatial-resolution (MSR, hundreds of meters) satellite images have been employed in several models to estimate GPP and T, the potential of high-spatial-resolution (HSR, tens of meters) imagery has been considered in only a few publications, and it is underexplored in sugarcane fields. Our study evaluated the efficacy of MSR and HSR satellite images in predicting daily GPP and T for sugarcane plantations at two sites equipped with eddy flux towers: Louisiana, USA (subtropical climate) and Sao Paulo, Brazil (tropical climate). We employed the Vegetation Photosynthesis Model (VPM) and Vegetation Transpiration Model (VTM) with C4 photosynthesis pathway, integrating vegetation index data derived from satellite images and on-ground weather data, to calculate daily GPP and T. The seasonal dynamics of vegetation indices from both MSR images (MODIS sensor, 500 m) and HSR images (Landsat, 30 m; Sentinel-2, 10 m) tracked well with the GPP seasonality from the EC flux towers. The enhanced vegetation index (EVI) from the HSR images had a stronger correlation with the tower-based GPP. Our findings underscored the potential of HSR imagery for estimating GPP and T in smaller sugarcane plantations.

 
more » « less
Award ID(s):
1946093
NSF-PAR ID:
10494882
Author(s) / Creator(s):
; ; ; ;
Publisher / Repository:
Remote Sensing
Date Published:
Journal Name:
Remote Sensing
Volume:
16
Issue:
1
ISSN:
2072-4292
Page Range / eLocation ID:
46
Format(s):
Medium: X
Sponsoring Org:
National Science Foundation
More Like this
  1. Abstract

    We mapped tidal wetland gross primary production (GPP) with unprecedented detail for multiple wetland types across the continental United States (CONUS) at 16‐day intervals for the years 2000–2019. To accomplish this task, we developed the spatially explicit Blue Carbon (BC) model, which combined tidal wetland cover and field‐based eddy covariance tower data into a single Bayesian framework, and used a super computer network and remote sensing imagery (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer Enhanced Vegetation Index). We found a strong fit between the BC model and eddy covariance data from 10 different towers (r2= 0.83,p< 0.001, root‐mean‐square error = 1.22 g C/m2/day, average error was 7% with a mean bias of nearly zero). When compared with NASA's MOD17 GPP product, which uses a generalized terrestrial algorithm, the BC model reduced error by approximately half (MOD17 hadr2= 0.45,p< 0.001, root‐mean‐square error of 3.38 g C/m2/day, average error of 15%). The BC model also included mixed pixels in areas not covered by MOD17, which comprised approximately 16.8% of CONUS tidal wetland GPP. Results showed that across CONUS between 2000 and 2019, the average daily GPP per m2was 4.32 ± 2.45 g C/m2/day. The total annual GPP for the CONUS was 39.65 ± 0.89 Tg C/year. GPP for the Gulf Coast was nearly double that of the Atlantic and Pacific Coasts combined. Louisiana alone accounted for 15.78 ± 0.75 Tg C/year, with its Atchafalaya/Vermillion Bay basin at 4.72 ± 0.14 Tg C/year. The BC model provides a robust platform for integrating data from disparate sources and exploring regional trends in GPP across tidal wetlands.

     
    more » « less
  2. Abstract

    Solar‐induced chlorophyll fluorescence (SIF) has been increasingly used as a proxy for terrestrial gross primary productivity (GPP). Previous work mainly evaluated the relationship between satellite‐observed SIF and gridded GPP products both based on coarse spatial resolutions. Finer resolution SIF (1.3 km × 2.25 km) measured from the Orbiting Carbon Observatory‐2 (OCO‐2) provides the first opportunity to examine the SIF–GPP relationship at the ecosystem scale using flux tower GPP data. However, it remains unclear how strong the relationship is for each biome and whether a robust, universal relationship exists across a variety of biomes. Here we conducted the first global analysis of the relationship between OCO‐2 SIF and tower GPP for a total of 64 flux sites across the globe encompassing eight major biomes. OCO‐2 SIF showed strong correlations with tower GPP at both midday and daily timescales, with the strongest relationship observed for daily SIF at the 757 nm (R2 = 0.72,p < 0.0001). Strong linear relationships between SIF and GPP were consistently found for all biomes (R2 = 0.57–0.79,p < 0.0001) except evergreen broadleaf forests (R2 = 0.16,p < 0.05) at the daily timescale. A higher slope was found for C4grasslands and croplands than for C3ecosystems. The generally consistent slope of the relationship among biomes suggests a nearly universal rather than biome‐specific SIF–GPP relationship, and this finding is an important distinction and simplification compared to previous results. SIF was mainly driven by absorbed photosynthetically active radiation and was also influenced by environmental stresses (temperature and water stresses) that determine photosynthetic light use efficiency. OCO‐2 SIF generally had a better performance for predicting GPP than satellite‐derived vegetation indices and a light use efficiency model. The universal SIF–GPP relationship can potentially lead to more accurate GPP estimates regionally or globally. Our findings revealed the remarkable ability of finer resolution SIF observations from OCO‐2 and other new or future missions (e.g., TROPOMI, FLEX) for estimating terrestrial photosynthesis across a wide variety of biomes and identified their potential and limitations for ecosystem functioning and carbon cycle studies.

     
    more » « less
  3. Solar-Induced Chlorophyll Fluorescence (SIF) can provide key information about the state of photosynthesis and offers the prospect of defining remote sensing-based estimation of Gross Primary Production (GPP). There is strong theoretical support for the link between SIF and GPP and this relationship has been empirically demonstrated using ground-based, airborne, and satellite-based SIF observations, as well as modeling. However, most evaluations have been based on monthly and annual scales, yet the GPP:SIF relations can be strongly influenced by both vegetation structure and physiology. At the monthly timescales, the structural response often dominates but short-term physiological variations can strongly impact the GPP:SIF relations. Here, we test how well SIF can predict the inter-daily variation of GPP during the growing season and under stress conditions, while taking into account the local effect of sites and abiotic conditions. We compare the accuracy of GPP predictions from SIF at different timescales (half-hourly, daily, and weekly), while evaluating effect of adding environmental variables to the relationship. We utilize observations for years 2018–2019 at 31 mid-latitudes, forested, eddy covariance (EC) flux sites in North America and Europe and use TROPOMI satellite data for SIF. Our results show that SIF is a good predictor of GPP, when accounting for inter-site variation, probably due to differences in canopy structure. Seasonally averaged leaf area index, fraction of absorbed photosynthetically active radiation (fPAR) and canopy conductance provide a predictor to the site-level effect. We show that fPAR is the main factor driving errors in the linear model at high temporal resolution. Adding water stress indicators, namely canopy conductance, to a multi-linear SIF-based GPP model provides the best improvement in the model precision at the three considered timescales, showing the importance of accounting for water stress in GPP predictions, independent of the SIF signal. SIF is a promising predictor for GPP among other remote sensing variables, but more focus should be placed on including canopy structure, and water stress effects in the relationship, especially when considering intra-seasonal, and inter- and intra-daily resolutions. 
    more » « less
  4. Different methods exist to measure or estimate actual crop evapotranspiration (ETa). However, some methods require a large number of data input or strict field conditions. Remote sensing based ETa algorithms based on extreme thermal pixels (hot and cold) have limitations when required extreme pixels are not present in the acquired thermal infra-red imagery. In addition, satellite overpass frequency and spatial pixel resolution may be a limitation for some agricultural fields and micro-climates. Surface energy balance methods that use surface radiometric temperatures often fail to perform well under drought, limited irrigation, salt affected soils, or under sparse vegetation conditions. One option is to measure or estimate the crop/surface sensible heat flux through the aerodynamic temperature approach, then calculate the available energy and solve the energy balance for latent heat flux. Thus, this study presents different published algorithms that characterize the crop or field surface aerodynamic temperature and then applies them to different conditions for evaluation. Determining spatial ETa continuously has the potential to improve the irrigation water management decision making. The aerodynamic temperature approach was initially developed with good results as a function of surface radiometric temperature, air temperature, crop leaf area index, and wind speed or surface aerodynamic resistance. However, the inclusion of the crop fractional percent cover and of a new resistance term (turbulent-mixing row resistance) greatly improved the estimation of the sensible heat and latent heat fluxes, when evaluated with heat flux data derived from eddy covariance energy balance towers. Results also indicate that the aerodynamic method has transferability potential to different regions, crops, and irrigation methods than the conditions encountered in the method development. 
    more » « less
  5. Abstract

    Accurate estimation of terrestrial gross primary productivity (GPP) remains a challenge despite its importance in the global carbon cycle. Chlorophyll fluorescence (ChlF) has been recently adopted to understand photosynthesis and its response to the environment, particularly with remote sensing data. However, it remains unclear how ChlF and photosynthesis are linked at different spatial scales across the growing season. We examined seasonal relationships between ChlF and photosynthesis at the leaf, canopy, and ecosystem scales and explored how leaf‐level ChlF was linked with canopy‐scale solar‐induced chlorophyll fluorescence (SIF) in a temperate deciduous forest at Harvard Forest, Massachusetts,USA. Our results show that ChlF captured the seasonal variations of photosynthesis with significant linear relationships between ChlF and photosynthesis across the growing season over different spatial scales (R= 0.73, 0.77, and 0.86 at leaf, canopy, and satellite scales, respectively;P < 0.0001). We developed a model to estimateGPPfrom the tower‐based measurement ofSIFand leaf‐level ChlF parameters. The estimation ofGPPfrom this model agreed well with flux tower observations ofGPP(R= 0.68;P < 0.0001), demonstrating the potential ofSIFfor modelingGPP. At the leaf scale, we found that leafFq/Fm, the fraction of absorbed photons that are used for photochemistry for a light‐adapted measurement from a pulse amplitude modulation fluorometer, was the best leaf fluorescence parameter to correlate with canopySIFyield (SIF/APAR,R= 0.79;P < 0.0001). We also found that canopySIFandSIF‐derivedGPP(GPPSIF) were strongly correlated to leaf‐level biochemistry and canopy structure, including chlorophyll content (R= 0.65 for canopyGPPSIFand chlorophyll content;P < 0.0001), leaf area index (LAI) (R= 0.35 for canopyGPPSIFandLAI;P < 0.0001), and normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) (R= 0.36 for canopyGPPSIFandNDVI;P < 0.0001). Our results suggest that ChlF can be a powerful tool to track photosynthetic rates at leaf, canopy, and ecosystem scales.

     
    more » « less