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Title: Time‐Resolved Measurements of PM 2.5 Chemical Composition and Brown Carbon Absorption in Nanjing, East China: Diurnal Variations and Organic Tracer‐Based PMF Analysis

To understand diurnal variations in PM2.5composition and aerosol extract absorption, PM2.5samples were collected at intervals of 2 hr from 8:00 to 20:00 and 6 hr from 20:00 to 8:00 (the next day) in northern Nanjing, China, during the winter and summer of 2019–2020 and analyzed for bulk components, organic tracers, and light absorption of water and methanol extracts—a proxy measure of brown carbon (BrC). Diurnal patterns of measured species reflected the influences of primary emissions and atmospheric processes. Light absorption coefficients of water (Abs365,w) and methanol extracts (Abs365,m) at 365 nm shared a similar diurnal profile peaking at 18:00–20:00, generally following changes in biomass burning tracers. However, Abs365,w, Abs365,m, and their normalizations to organic aerosols increased at 14:00–16:00, earlier than that of levoglucosan in the late afternoon, which was attributed to secondarily formed BrC. The methanol extracts showed a less drastic decrease in light absorption at night than the water extracts and elevated absorption efficiency during 2:00–8:00. This is due to the fact that the water‐insoluble OC has a longer lifetime and stronger light absorption than the water‐soluble OC. According to the source apportionment results solved by positive matrix factorization (PMF), biomass burning and secondary formation were the major BrC sources in northern Nanjing, with an average total relative contribution of about 90%. Compared to previous studies, diurnal source cycles were added to the PMF simulations in this work by using time‐resolved speciation data, which avoided misclassification of BrC sources.

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Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres
Medium: X
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National Science Foundation
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