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  1. Abstract

    Tradeoffs between the energetic benefits and costs of traits can shape species and trait distributions along environmental gradients. Here we test predictions based on such tradeoffs using survival, growth, and 50 photosynthetic, hydraulic, and allocational traits of tenEucalyptusspecies grown in four common gardens along an 8-fold gradient in precipitation/pan evaporation (P/Ep) in Victoria, Australia. Phylogenetically structured tests show that most trait-environment relationships accord qualitatively with theory. Most traits appear adaptive across species within gardens (indicating fixed genetic differences) and within species across gardens (indicating plasticity). However, species from moister climates have lower stomatal conductance than others grown under the same conditions. Responses in stomatal conductance and five related traits appear to reflect greater mesophyll photosynthetic sensitivity of mesic species to lower leaf water potential. Our data support adaptive cross-over, with realized height growth of most species exceeding that of others in climates they dominate. Our findings show that pervasive physiological, hydraulic, and allocational adaptations shape the distributions of dominantEucalyptusspecies along a subcontinental climatic moisture gradient, driven by rapid divergence in speciesP/Epand associated adaptations.

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  2. We present a study of the standard plasma physics test, Landau damping, using the Particle-In-Cell (PIC) algorithm. The Landau damping phenomenon consists of the damping of small oscillations in plasmas without collisions. In the PIC method, a hybrid discretization is constructed with a grid of finitely supported basis functions to represent the electric, magnetic and/or gravitational fields, and a distribution of delta functions to represent the particle field. Approximations to the dispersion relation are found to be inadequate in accurately calculating values for the electric field frequency and damping rate when parameters of the physical system, such as the plasma frequency or thermal velocity, are varied. We present a full derivation and numerical solution for the dispersion relation, and verify the PETSC-PIC numerical solutions to the Vlasov-Poisson for a large range of wave numbers and charge densities. 
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  3. Abstract Arrayed libraries of defined mutants have been used to elucidate gene function in the post-genomic era. Yeast haploid gene deletion libraries have pioneered this effort, but are costly to construct, do not reveal phenotypes that may occur with partial gene function and lack essential genes required for growth. We therefore devised an efficient method to construct a library of barcoded insertion mutants with a wider range of phenotypes that can be generalized to other organisms or collections of DNA samples. We developed a novel but simple three-dimensional pooling and multiplexed sequencing approach that leveraged sequence information to reduce the number of required sequencing reactions by orders of magnitude, and were able to identify the barcode sequences and DNA insertion sites of 4391 Schizosaccharomyces pombe insertion mutations with only 40 sequencing preparations. The insertion mutations are in the genes and untranslated regions of nonessential, essential and noncoding RNA genes, and produced a wider range of phenotypes compared to the cognate deletion mutants, including novel phenotypes. This mutant library represents both a proof of principle for an efficient method to produce novel mutant libraries and a valuable resource for the S. pombe research community. 
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  4. Abstract

    Reduced stomatal conductance is a common plant response to rising atmospheric CO2and increases water use efficiency (W). At the leaf-scale,Wdepends on water and nitrogen availability in addition to atmospheric CO2. In hydroclimate modelsWis a key driver of rainfall, droughts, and streamflow extremes. We used global climate data to derive Aridity Indices (AI) for forests over the period 1965–2015 and synthesised those with data for nitrogen deposition andWderived from stable isotopes in tree rings. AI and atmospheric CO2account for most of the variance inWof trees across the globe, while cumulative nitrogen deposition has a significant effect only in regions without strong legacies of atmospheric pollution. The relation of aridity andWdisplays a clear discontinuity.Wand AI are strongly related below a threshold value of AI ≈ 1 but are not related where AI > 1. Tree ring data emphasise that effective demarcation of water-limited from non-water-limited behaviour of stomata is critical to improving hydrological models that operate at regional to global scales.

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  5. Steppe, Kathy (Ed.)
    Abstract Sap velocity measurements are useful in fields ranging from plant water relations to hydrology at a variety of scales. Techniques based on pulses of heat are among the most common methods to measure sap velocity, but most lack ability to measure velocities across a wide range, including very high, very low and negative velocities (reverse flow). We propose a new method, the double-ratio method (DRM), which is robust across an unprecedented range of sap velocities and provides real-time estimates of the thermal diffusivity of wood. The DRM employs one temperature sensor upstream (proximal) and two sensors downstream (distal) to the source of heat. This facilitates several theoretical, heat-based approaches to quantifying sap velocity. We tested the DRM using whole-tree lysimetry in Eucalyptus cypellocarpa L.A.S. Johnson and found strong agreement across a wide range of velocities. 
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  6. Abstract

    Rates of change in intrinsic water use efficiency (W) of trees relative to those in atmospheric [CO2] (ca) have been mostly assessed via short-term studies (e.g., leaf analysis, flux analysis) and/or step increases inca(e.g., FACE studies). Here we use compiled data for abundances of carbon isotopes in tree stems to show that on decadal scales, rates of change (dW/dca) vary with location and rainfall within the global tropics. For the period 1915–1995, and including corrections for mesophyll conductance and photorespiration,dW/dcafor drier tropical forests (receiving ~ 1000 mm rainfall) were at least twice that of the wettest (receiving ~ 4000 mm). The data also empirically confirm theorized roles of tropical forests in changes in atmospheric13C/12C ratios (the13C Suess Effect). Further formal analysis of geographic variation in decade-to-century scaledW/dcawill be needed to refine current models that predict increases in carbon uptake by forests without hydrological cost.

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  7. Summary

    Photosynthetic sensitivity to drought is a fundamental constraint on land‐plant evolution and ecosystem function. However, little is known about how the sensitivity of photosynthesis to nonstomatal limitations varies among species in the context of phylogenetic relationships.

    Using saplings of 10Eucalyptusspecies, we measured maximum CO2‐saturated photosynthesis usingA–cicurves at several different leaf water potentials (ψleaf) to quantify mesophyll photosynthetic sensitivity to ψleaf(MPS), a measure of how rapidly nonstomatal limitations to carbon uptake increase with declining ψleaf. MPS was compared to the macroclimatic moisture availability of the species’ native habitats, while accounting for phylogenetic relationships.

    We found that species native to mesic habitats have greater MPS but higher maximum photosynthetic rates during non‐water‐stressed conditions, revealing a trade‐off between maximum photosynthesis and drought sensitivity. Species with lower turgor loss points have lower MPS, indicating coordination among photosynthetic and water‐relations traits.

    By accounting for phylogenetic relationships among closely related species, we provide the first compelling evidence that MPS inEucalyptusevolved in an adaptive fashion with climatically determined moisture availability, opening the way for further study of this poorly explored dimension of plant adaptation to drought.

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