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  1. In this paper, we report the molecular beam epitaxy-grown InGaN-quantum disks embedded within selective area epitaxy of GaN nanowires with both Ga- and N-polarities. A detailed comparative analysis of these two types of nanostructures is also provided. Compared to Ga-polar nanowires, N-polar nanowires are found to exhibit a higher vertical growth rate, flatter top, and reduced lateral overgrowth. InGaN quantum disk-related optical emission is observed from nanowires with both polarities; however, the N-polar structures inherently emit at longer wavelengths due to higher indium incorporation. Considering that N-polar nanowires offer more compelling geometry control compared to Ga-polar ones, we focus on the theoretical analysis of only N-polar structures to realize high-performance quantum emitters. A single nanowire-level analysis was performed, and the effects of nanowire diameter, taper length, and angle on guided modes, light extraction, and far-field emission were investigated. These findings highlight the importance of tailoring nanowire geometry and eventually optimizing the growth processes of III-nitride nanostructures.

     
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    Free, publicly-accessible full text available February 1, 2025
  2. To date, it has remained challenging to achieve N-polar AlN, which is of great importance for high power, high frequency, and high temperature electronics, acoustic resonators and filters, ultraviolet (UV) optoelectronics, and integrated photonics. Here, we performed a detailed study of the molecular beam epitaxy and characterization of N-polar AlN on C-face 4H-SiC substrates. The N-polar AlN films grown under optimized conditions exhibit an atomically smooth surface and strong excitonic emission in the deep UV with luminescence efficiency exceeding 50% at room temperature. Detailed scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) studies suggest that most dislocations are terminated/annihilated within ∼200 nm AlN grown directly on the SiC substrate due to the relatively small (1%) lattice mismatch between AlN and SiC. The strain distribution of AlN is further analyzed by STEM and micro-Raman spectroscopy, and its impact on the temperature-dependent deep UV emission is elucidated.

     
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    Free, publicly-accessible full text available December 1, 2024
  3. In the present study, thermal stability of α-Ga2O3 under vacuum and ambient pressure conditions was investigated in situ by x-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). It was observed that the thermal stability of α-Ga2O3 increased by 200 °C when pressure was lowered from an atmospheric to a vacuum level. This finding can be explained by oxygen diffusion under different oxygen partial pressures. In addition, in situ TEM imaging revealed that, once past the decomposition temperature, the onset of phase change propagates from the top crystal surface and accumulates strain, eventually resulting in a fractural film. The mechanism of α-Ga2O3 to β-Ga2O3 transition is evaluated through experiments and is discussed in this manuscript.

     
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    Free, publicly-accessible full text available July 1, 2024
  4. Ultra-wide-bandgap (UWBG) semiconductors, such as Ga2O3 and diamond, have been attracting increasing attention owing to their potential to realize high-performance power devices with high breakdown voltage and low on-resistance beyond those of SiC and GaN. Among numerous UWBG semiconductors, this work focuses on the corundum-structured α-Ga2O3, which is a metastable polymorph of Ga2O3. The large bandgap energy of 5.3 eV, a large degree of freedom in band engineering, and availability of isomorphic p-type oxides to form a hetero p–n junction make α-Ga2O3 an attractive candidate for power device applications. Promising preliminary prototype device structures have been demonstrated without advanced edge termination despite the high dislocation density in the epilayers owing to the absence of native substrates and lattice-matched foreign substrates. In this Perspective, we present an overview of the research and development of α-Ga2O3 for power device applications and discuss future research directions.

     
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  5. Obtaining uniform silicon concentration, especially with low concentrations (ranging from 1 × 1016 to 1 × 1018 cm−3) by molecular beam epitaxy, has been challenging due to oxidation of a silicon solid source in the oxide environment. In this work, Si doping of β-Ga2O3 (010) films by diluted disilane as the Si source is investigated using hybrid plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy. The impact of growth temperature, disilane source concentration, and disilane flow rate on Si incorporation was studied by secondary ion mass spectrometry. Uniform Si concentrations ranging from 3 × 1016 to 2 × 1019 cm−3 are demonstrated. Si-doped β-Ga2O3 films with different silicon concentrations were grown on Fe-doped β-Ga2O3 (010) substrates. The electron concentration and mobility were determined using van de Pauw Hall measurements. A high mobility of 135 cm2/V s was measured for an electron concentration of 3.4 × 1017 cm−3 at room temperature.

     
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  6. There is increasing interest in α-polytype Ga2O3 for power device applications, but there are few published reports on dielectrics for this material. Finding a dielectric with large band offsets for both valence and conduction bands is especially challenging given its large bandgap of 5.1 eV. One option is HfSiO4 deposited by atomic layer deposition (ALD), which provides conformal, low damage deposition and has a bandgap of 7 eV. The valence band offset of the HfSiO4/Ga2O3 heterointerface was measured using x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The single-crystal α-Ga2O3 was grown by halide vapor phase epitaxy on sapphire substrates. The valence band offset was 0.82 ± 0.20 eV (staggered gap, type-II alignment) for ALD HfSiO4 on α-Ga0.2O3. The corresponding conduction band offset was −2.72 ± 0.45 eV, providing no barrier to electrons moving into Ga2O3.

     
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  7. The band alignments of two candidate dielectrics for ScAlN, namely, SiO2 and Al2O2, were obtained by x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. We compared the effect of deposition method on the valence band offsets of both sputtered and atomic layer deposition films of SiO2 and Al2O3 on Sc0.27Al0.73 N (bandgap 5.1 eV) films. The band alignments are type I (straddled gap) for SiO2 and type II (staggered gap) for Al2O3. The deposition methods make a large difference in relative valence band offsets, in the range 0.4–0.5 eV for both SiO2 and Al2O3. The absolute valence band offsets were 2.1 or 2.6 eV for SiO2 and 1.5 or 1.9 eV for Al2O3 on ScAlN. Conduction band offsets derived from these valence band offsets, and the measured bandgaps were then in the range 1.0–1.1 eV for SiO2 and 0.30–0.70 eV for Al2O3. These latter differences can be partially ascribed to changes in bandgap for the case of SiO2 deposited by the two different methods, but not for Al2O3, where the bandgap as independent of deposition method. Since both dielectrics can be selectively removed from ScAlN, they are promising as gate dielectrics for transistor structures.

     
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