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  1. Fluorogenic atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP) directly detects initiator-dependent polymer formation, as initially non-fluorescent polycyclic aromatic probe monomers reveal visible fluorescence upon polymerization in real time. Advancement of this initial proof-of-concept toward biodetection applications requires both a more detailed mechanistic understanding of probe fluorescence activation, and the ability to initiate fluorogenic polymerization directly from a biomolecule surface. Here, we show that simple monomer hydrogenation, independent of polymerization, reveals probe fluorescence, supporting the critical role of covalent enone attachment in fluorogenic probe quenching and subsequent fluorescence activation. We next demonstrate bioorthogonal, protein-initiated fluorogenic ATRP by the surface conjugation and characterization of protein–initiator conjugates of a model protein, bovine serum albumin (BSA). Fluorogenic ATRP from initiator-modified protein allows for real-time visualization of polymer formation with negligible background fluorescence from unmodified BSA controls. We further probe the bioorthogonality of this fluorogenic ATRP assay by assessing polymer formation in a complex biological environment, spiked with fetal bovine serum. Taken together, we demonstrate the potential of aqueous fluorogenic ATRP as a robust, bioorthogonal method for biomolecular-initiated polymerization by real-time fluorescence activation.
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available July 1, 2023
  2. ABSTRACT

    We present optical photometry and spectroscopy of the superluminous SN 2002gh from maximum light to +204 d, obtained as part of the Carnegie Type II Supernova (CATS) project. SN 2002gh is among the most luminous discovered supernovae ever, yet it remained unnoticed for nearly two decades. Using Dark Energy Camera archival images we identify the potential supernova (SN) host galaxy as a faint dwarf galaxy, presumably having low metallicity, and in an apparent merging process with other nearby dwarf galaxies. We show that SN 2002gh is among the brightest hydrogen-poor SLSNe with MV = −22.40 ± 0.02, with an estimated peak bolometric luminosity of 2.6 ± 0.1 × 1044 erg s−1. We discount the decay of radioactive nickel as the main SN power mechanism, and assuming that the SN is powered by the spin-down of a magnetar we obtain two alternative solutions. The first case, is characterized by significant magnetar power leakage, and Mej between 0.6 and 3.2 M⊙, Pspin = 3.2 ms, and B = 5 × 1013 G. The second case does not require power leakage, resulting in a huge ejecta mass of about 30 M⊙, a fast spin period of Pspin ∼ 1 ms, and B ∼ 1.6 × 1014 G. We estimate a zero-age main-sequence mass between 14 and 25 M⊙ for the first case and ofmore »about 135 M⊙ for the second case. The latter case would place the SN progenitor among the most massive stars observed to explode as an SN.

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  3. For the past century, dislocations have been understood to be the carriers of plastic deformation in crystalline solids. However, their collective behavior is still poorly understood. Progress in understanding the collective behavior of dislocations has primarily come in one of two modes: the simulation of systems of interacting discrete dislocations and the treatment of density measures of varying complexity that are considered as continuum fields. A summary of contemporary models of continuum dislocation dynamics is presented. These include, in order of complexity, the two-dimensional statistical theory of dislocations, the field dislocation mechanics treating the total Kröner–Nye tensor, vector density approaches that treat geometrically necessary dislocations on each slip system of a crystal, and high-order theories that examine the effect of dislocation curvature and distribution over orientation. Each of theories contain common themes, including statistical closure of the kinetic dislocation transport equations and treatment of dislocation reactions such as junction formation. An emphasis is placed on how these common themes rely on closure relations obtained by analysis of discrete dislocation dynamics experiments. The outlook of these various continuum theories of dislocation motion is then discussed.
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available January 1, 2023
  4. Abstract We present high-cadence optical, ultraviolet (UV), and near-infrared data of the nearby ( D ≈ 23 Mpc) Type II supernova (SN) 2021yja. Many Type II SNe show signs of interaction with circumstellar material (CSM) during the first few days after explosion, implying that their red supergiant (RSG) progenitors experience episodic or eruptive mass loss. However, because it is difficult to discover SNe early, the diversity of CSM configurations in RSGs has not been fully mapped. SN 2021yja, first detected within ≈ 5.4 hours of explosion, shows some signatures of CSM interaction (high UV luminosity and radio and x-ray emission) but without the narrow emission lines or early light-curve peak that can accompany CSM. Here we analyze the densely sampled early light curve and spectral series of this nearby SN to infer the properties of its progenitor and CSM. We find that the most likely progenitor was an RSG with an extended envelope, encompassed by low-density CSM. We also present archival Hubble Space Telescope imaging of the host galaxy of SN 2021yja, which allows us to place a stringent upper limit of ≲ 9 M ☉ on the progenitor mass. However, this is in tension with some aspects of themore »SN evolution, which point to a more massive progenitor. Our analysis highlights the need to consider progenitor structure when making inferences about CSM properties, and that a comprehensive view of CSM tracers should be made to give a fuller view of the last years of RSG evolution.« less
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available August 1, 2023
  5. ABSTRACT We present optical spectroscopy together with ultraviolet, optical, and near-infrared photometry of SN 2019hcc, which resides in a host galaxy at redshift 0.044, displaying a sub-solar metallicity. The supernova spectrum near peak epoch shows a ‘w’ shape at around 4000 Å which is usually associated with O ii lines and is typical of Type I superluminous supernovae. SN 2019hcc post-peak spectra show a well-developed H α P-Cygni profile from 19 d past maximum and its light curve, in terms of its absolute peak luminosity and evolution, resembles that of a fast-declining Hydrogen-rich supernova (SN IIL). The object does not show any unambiguous sign of interaction as there is no evidence of narrow lines in the spectra or undulations in the light curve. Our tardis spectral modelling of the first spectrum shows that carbon, nitrogen, and oxygen (CNO) at 19 000 K reproduce the ‘w’ shape and suggests that a combination of non-thermally excited CNO and metal lines at 8000 K could reproduce the feature seen at 4000 Å. The Bolometric light-curve modelling reveals that SN 2019hcc could be fit with a magnetar model, showing a relatively strong magnetic field (B > 3 × 1014 G), which matches the peak luminosity and rise time without powering up the light curve to superluminous luminosities. Themore »high-energy photons produced by the magnetar would then be responsible for the detected O ii lines. As a consequence, SN 2019hcc shows that a ‘w’ shape profile at around 4000 Å, usually attributed to O ii, is not only shown in superluminous supernovae and hence it should not be treated as the sole evidence of the belonging to such a supernova type.« less
  6. ABSTRACT AT 2018hyz (= ASASSN-18zj) is a tidal disruption event (TDE) located in the nucleus of a quiescent E+A galaxy at a redshift of z = 0.04573, first detected by the All-Sky Automated Survey for Supernovae (ASAS-SN). We present optical+UV photometry of the transient, as well as an X-ray spectrum and radio upper limits. The bolometric light curve of AT 2018hyz is comparable to other known TDEs and declines at a rate consistent with a t−5/3 at early times, emitting a total radiated energy of E = 9 × 1050 erg. An excess bump appears in the UV light curve about 50 d after bolometric peak, followed by a flattening beyond 250 d. We detect a constant X-ray source present for at least 86 d. The X-ray spectrum shows a total unabsorbed flux of ∼4 × 10−14 erg cm−2 s−1 and is best fit by a blackbody plus power-law model with a photon index of Γ = 0.8. A thermal X-ray model is unable to account for photons >1 keV, while a radio non-detection favours inverse-Compton scattering rather than a jet for the non-thermal component. We model the optical and UV light curves using the Modular Open-Source Fitter for Transients (MOSFiT) and find a best fit for a black hole of 5.2 × 106 M⊙ disrupting a 0.1 M⊙ star; themore »model suggests the star was likely only partially disrupted, based on the derived impact parameter of β = 0.6. The low optical depth implied by the small debris mass may explain how we are able to see hydrogen emission with disc-like line profiles in the spectra of AT 2018hyz (see our companion paper).« less
  7. The many unusual properties of the enigmatic AT2018cow suggested that at least some subset of the empirical class of fast blue optical transients (FBOTs) represents a genuinely new astrophysical phenomenon. Unfortunately, the intrinsic rarity and fleeting nature of these events have made it difficult to identify additional examples early enough to acquire the observations necessary to constrain theoretical models. We present here the Zwicky Transient Facility discovery of AT2020xnd (ZTF20acigmel, the "Camel") at z=0.243, the first unambiguous AT2018cow analog to be found and confirmed in real time. AT2018cow and AT2020xnd share all key observational properties: a fast optical rise, sustained high photospheric temperature, absence of a second peak attributable to ejection of a radioactively-heated stellar envelope, extremely luminous radio, millimetre, and X-ray emission, and a dwarf-galaxy host. This supports the argument that AT2018cow-like events represent a distinct phenomenon from slower-evolving radio-quiet supernovae, likely requiring a different progenitor or a different central engine. The sample properties of the four known members of this class to date disfavour tidal disruption models but are consistent with the alternative model of an accretion powered jet following the direct collapse of a massive star to a black hole. Contextual filtering of alert streams combined withmore »rapid photometric verification using multi-band imaging provides an efficient way to identify future members of this class, even at high redshift.« less
  8. ABSTRACT Low-luminosity Type II supernovae (LL SNe II) make up the low explosion energy end of core-collapse SNe, but their study and physical understanding remain limited. We present SN 2016aqf, an LL SN II with extensive spectral and photometric coverage. We measure a V-band peak magnitude of −14.58 mag, a plateau duration of ∼100 d, and an inferred 56Ni mass of 0.008 ± 0.002 M⊙. The peak bolometric luminosity, Lbol ≈ 1041.4 erg s−1, and its spectral evolution are typical of other SNe in the class. Using our late-time spectra, we measure the [O i] λλ6300, 6364 lines, which we compare against SN II spectral synthesis models to constrain the progenitor zero-age main-sequence mass. We find this to be 12 ± 3 M⊙. Our extensive late-time spectral coverage of the [Fe ii] λ7155 and [Ni ii] λ7378 lines permits a measurement of the Ni/Fe abundance ratio, a parameter sensitive to the inner progenitor structure and explosion mechanism dynamics. We measure a constant abundance ratio evolution of $0.081^{+0.009}_{-0.010}$ and argue that the best epochs to measure the ratio are at ∼200–300 d after explosion. We place this measurement in the context of a large sample of SNe II and compare against various physical, light-curve, and spectral parameters, in search of trends that might allow indirect ways of constrainingmore »this ratio. We do not find correlations predicted by theoretical models; however, this may be the result of the exact choice of parameters and explosion mechanism in the models, the simplicity of them, and/or primordial contamination in the measured abundance ratio.« less