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Detecting long‐term changes in stomatal conductance: challenges and opportunities of tree‐ring
δ18OproxyFree, publicly-accessible full text available November 1, 2023
AbstractTo quantify the effects of tree height and canopy position on delta13C and delta18O of wood cellulose, we sampled 399 trees and saplings of eight species at nine forest stands across New Hampshire and Vermont, along with nearby saplings growing in the open. Samples were collected in 2017-18, and we analyzed the combined alpha-cellulose from growth rings formed in 2013-2017 for each tree. Carbon data are published in: Vadeboncoeur, M., K. Jennings, A. Ouimette, and H. Asbjornsen. (2020) Correcting tree-ring d13C time series for tree-size effects in eight temperate tree species. Tree Physiology. https://doi.org/10.1093/treephys/tpz138
AbstractTo assess relative production of fine roots in droughted and reference plots that are part of the Hubbard Brook DroughtNet study, mesh-free root ingrowth (total depth 20cm) were installed during most study years. Multiple subplots for destructive soil measurements were reserved within plots 7 and 8, and just outside reference plots 1 and 2 in 2015. Fine root production is a component of NPP that is often not well measured in global change experiments. The ingrowth core methodology used may not perfectly represent belowground NPP in the surrounding intact soil, but should provide a reliable metric of relative differences among plots and over time. These data were gathered as part of the Hubbard Brook Ecosystem Study (HBES). The HBES is a collaborative effort at the Hubbard Brook Experimental Forest, which is operated and maintained by the USDA Forest Service, Northern Research Station.
AbstractThe forest drought experiment prototype at Hubbard Brook was constructed in 2015, as part of the International Drought Experiment (IDE) coordinated by the DroughtNet Research Coordination Network. The throughfall exclusion experiment was designed to simulate a 1-in-100-year drought during an average precipitation year by diverting ~50% of forest throughfall from each treatment plot starting in May 2015 (Asbjornsen et al., 2018). Throughfall was intercepted by reinforced polyethylene troughs and diverted passively to the downslope side of each plot. Each throughfall exclusion plot was 15 x 15 meters in area. TFE plots were designated with the labels 7 and 8 to avoid any confusion with the nearby CCASE plots (which are labeled 1-6). Plots were not trenched to isolate them from the surrounding soil. In May 2019 throughfall removal was increased to approximately 95% (i.e. full coverage but with stemflow not fully excluded). Throughfall exclusion treatments ended in February 2020. Recovery and return to baseline conditions were monitored during 2020 (when a natural drought occurred) and 2021 (a more normal year). These data were gathered as part of the Hubbard Brook Ecosystem Study (HBES). The HBES is a collaborative effort at the Hubbard Brook Experimental Forest, which is operated and
AbstractDendrometer bands were installed to measure tree diameter growth in the Hubbard Brook DroughtNet plots in 2014. Changes in stem diameter, basal area, and aboveground biomass can all be calculated from dendrometer band measurements, provided the tree diameter is known for at least one measurement date. Data from nearby CCASE control plots 1 and 2 can be used as references for these data (these will be part of a forthcoming separate package). These data were gathered as part of the Hubbard Brook Ecosystem Study (HBES). The HBES is a collaborative effort at the Hubbard Brook Experimental Forest, which is operated and maintained by the USDA Forest Service, Northern Research Station.
As sap flow research expands, new challenges such as fast sap flows or flows co-occurring with freeze/thaw cycles appear, which are not easily addressed with existing methods. In order to address these new challenges, sap flow methods capable of measuring bidirectional, high and slow sap flux densities (
F , cm3cm−2 h−1), thermal properties and stem water content with minimum sensitivity to stem temperature are required. d Purpose
In this study we assessed the performance of a new low-power ratio-based algorithm, the maximum heat ratio (
MHR) method, and compare it with the widely known heat ratio ( HR) method using a cut-tree study to test it under high flows using Eucalyptus grandistrees, and a freeze/thaw experiment using Acer saccharumtrunks to test its response to fast changing stem temperatures that result in freeze/thaw cycles. Results
Our results indicate that MHR and HR had a strong (R2 = 0.90) linear relationship within a
F drange of 0–45 cm3 cm−2 h−1. Using the MHR algorithm, we were able to estimate wood thermal properties and water content, while extending the measuring range of HR to approximately 0–130 (cm3cm−2 h−1). In our freeze/thaw experiment, the main discrepancy between MHR and HR was observed during freezing, where HR had consistently lower F d(up to 10 cm3 cm−2 h−1), with respect to MHR. However, both algorithmsmore » Conclusion
Consequently, MHR can be an easy-to-implement alternative algorithm/method capable of handling extreme climatic conditions, which can also run simultaneously with HR.
Cernusak, Lucas (Ed.)Abstract Stable carbon isotope ratios (δ13C) in tree rings have been widely used to study changes in intrinsic water-use efficiency (iWUE), sometimes with limited consideration of how C-isotope discrimination is affected by tree height and canopy position. Our goals were to quantify the relationships between tree size or tree microenvironment and wood δ13C for eight functionally diverse temperate tree species in northern New England and to better understand the physical and physiological mechanisms underlying these differences. We collected short increment cores in closed-canopy stands and analyzed δ13C in the most recent 5 years of growth. We also sampled saplings in both shaded and sun-exposed environments. In closed-canopy stands, we found strong tree-size effects on δ13C, with 3.7–7.2‰ of difference explained by linear regression vs height (0.11–0.28‰ m−1), which in some cases is substantially stronger than the effect reported in previous studies. However, open-grown saplings were often isotopically more similar to large codominant trees than to shade-grown saplings, indicating that light exposure contributes more to the physiological and isotopic differences between small and large trees than does height. We found that in closed-canopy forests, δ13C correlations with diameter at breast height were nonlinear but also strong, allowing a straightforward procedure to correctmore »
Disentangling the role of photosynthesis and stomatal conductance on rising forest water-use efficiencyMultiple lines of evidence suggest that plant water-use efficiency (WUE)—the ratio of carbon assimilation to water loss—has increased in recent decades. Although rising atmospheric CO 2 has been proposed as the principal cause, the underlying physiological mechanisms are still being debated, and implications for the global water cycle remain uncertain. Here, we addressed this gap using 30-y tree ring records of carbon and oxygen isotope measurements and basal area increment from 12 species in 8 North American mature temperate forests. Our goal was to separate the contributions of enhanced photosynthesis and reduced stomatal conductance to WUE trends and to assess consistency between multiple commonly used methods for estimating WUE. Our results show that tree ring-derived estimates of increases in WUE are consistent with estimates from atmospheric measurements and predictions based on an optimal balancing of carbon gains and water costs, but are lower than those based on ecosystem-scale flux observations. Although both physiological mechanisms contributed to rising WUE, enhanced photosynthesis was widespread, while reductions in stomatal conductance were modest and restricted to species that experienced moisture limitations. This finding challenges the hypothesis that rising WUE in forests is primarily the result of widespread, CO 2 -induced reductions in stomatal conductance.